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-Significant planning cities and places & why they are significant (a city may be significant formore than one reason such as major events, plans, acts, court cases, etc.)1. New York---first city 2. Levittown--first suburbiaa. Family lifeb. Loans that made homes affordable3. White City---Start of the City Beautiful movementa. Electricityb. Inspiration for planners4. Plan of Chicagoa. Part of the city beautiful movementb. Defined what a plan should be c. City created a planning commissiond. No housing, sanitation, or social issuese. No public participation, mechanism for revision/review5. Philadelphia, Savannah, DCa. Gridiron pattern6. Riverside (neighborhood)a. Gets rid of gridiron ideab. Open space reform7. Yonkersa. High density subsidized housing in yonkers neighborhoodb. The city forced them to move some of the subsidized living to other areas8. Venice Florida (walking cities)a. Planned communityi. Street patternii. TransitPublic recCivic artb. Neglected HousingCitizen participationadaptability9. Radburn NJa. Designed for “motor age”b. Not completed due to depressionc. “Garden city”d. Also Columbia, MD and Reston, VA10. Letchworth, enga. First garden city11. Mugler vs Kansas a. Upheld Kansas prohibition law that forced closing of brewery withoutcompensation b. Regulated usec. Loss imposed through exercise of police power to protect the health orsafety of a community required no compensation12. Hadacheck vs Sebastiana. Police power/ nuisanceb. Brickyard in LAs developing outskirts, brickmakeris forced to shut downby the city13. Euclid vs Amblera. Upheld Zoning as police power not a takingb. Euclid, Ohio had ordinance that prevented Ambler Realty Co frombuilding a commercial structure in a residential areac. Euclidian Zoning (segregation zoning) traditional zoning vs more flexiblezoning14. Bove vs Donner-Hanna Coke Corporationa. Nuisance b. House knowingly built in industrial area, bove called the Coke plant anuisance but people living in this area must accept a higher threshold ofnuisances15. Penn Central vs NYCa. Regulating historic preservation is allowed due to public welfare of thepolice powersb. Owner wanted to build structure on top of penn station. Denied—claimed that because building could not be destroyed or developedabove the value that had been “taken”c. Supreme court found in favor of the city “air rights”-Reform movements & their importance- Sanitationo Stormwater drains became cesspools“water carriage” sewer systemso John Snow mapped cholera outbreaks and shut down the contaminated wello Olmsted incorporated sanitation design into planning by contouring the land fordrainage. Water movement=less mosquitos and disease- Urban Open Spaceo Ventilate city  open space is the lungs of the city Central park, riverside neighborhood, lake ella, tom brown- Housing Reformo Housing quality for the urban pooro Legislation for mandating standards Codes permitso 1901 Tenant Housing Act Ventilation and light  Fire safety courtyards- Civic Improvement and City Beautiful o White city sparked the movemento Aesthetically pleasing cities Plantings, paved streets, sidewalks, parks, etc- Civic Art movemento Fusion of Art, Architecture, and planning (URBAN DESIGN)o Stemmed from Europe- City Beautifulo Municipal art- civic improvement- landscapingo Concentration on things municipal gov had control of Street, public buildings, public spaceso Led to white city Led to birth of modern planning from the Chicago plan -The legal basis of planning and regulation:-Constitutionality, important US amendments and substate’s designation of power-Police power, eminent domain, a ‘taking’, a ‘nuisance’, ‘rational nexus’-Court cases (significance, not really specifics)-Planning tools & how tools work togetherPlanners ToolkitResearchDesignLand UseCommunicationLawTheoryGeographyArchitectureTechnologyEconomicsCommunity DevelopmentEnvironmentHousing NeedsCultural Understanding PsychologyVision- Zoning: A tool of land use regulation that is established in the comprehensive - (master) plan. - Eminent Domain: is the public taking of private property with just compensation(compensated at fair market value).o Road wideningo Urban Renewalo Economic Development- Takingo Physical or regulatory action o The taking of property for a trivial purpose (non-public use) will not hold up incourt, benefits need to be linked - Police Powero The right of the community to regulate the activities of private parties to protectthe interests of the public Health Safety Public welfare Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by theConstitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the Statesrespectively, or to the people Powers to zone are based on the interpretation of the 10th Amendment - Proper Public Purpose- Due Process-Conceptuality and content of a Comprehensive Plan (Vision, GOPs, intent, purpose)-Comprehensive Land Use Planning-Subdivision-Zoning (regulation, criticisms, display & flexibility)-Future Land Use (FLU)-Other controls (legal, etc.)Private CommunitiesBalkanization: To divide a region or territory into small, often hostile units.Private clubs, tennis courts, etcWorks against ideas of wider integrated communityHomelessnessLack of affordable housing Public policy Full time work at minimum wage is not enough to afford a one bedroom apartmentUrban renewal and Gentrification are causesComprehensive PlanBasic plan for the development of a community Master planLays out the future of what a city is to beExpresses community desires Protects the city legallyResearch→ Visioning→ Formulation→ Implementation→ Review- Researcho DATA Demographics GIS Environmental Issues- Visioningo Clarification of goals Meetings and forums- Formulationo GOP Means VS Ends- Goals= Want- Objectives= What- Policies= How- Implementationo Plan is only good if its implementedo Planning tools Capital investment Budgets Land use controls- Reviewo Changes made to plano 10-20 year plans 5 (+/-) years- scheduled updates- Reviewo What works what doesnt Constant changes as necessary- Amendments- disastersGoals of Plans- Healtho Water, sewer, densityo Separating land useso Banning certain industryo Beautification- Public Safetyo Sufficient roadso Height restrictionso Pedestrian o Flooding- Transportation o Personal o

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FSU URP 3000 - Lecture notes

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