KSU NUTR 33512 - Final Exam Study Guide

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Nutrition Final Exam Study GuideFinal Exam Information- 12 Q’s chapter 16, 11 Q’s chapter 17, Every other chapter has 4 Q’s each,- 70% previous exams and 30% new Q’sExam 1 Content- Define kcal o A kcal is the amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature 1000 g (1 liter) of water 1⁰Co 1000 calories = 1 kcal = 1 “food” calorie- Know components of nutrition assessment and examples of eacho A nthropometrics – measuring various aspects of the body including height, weight, body circumferencesand skinfold thicknesso B iochemical – measurement of the concentrations of nutrients and nutrient by-products in the blood, urine, feces and of specific blood enzyme activitieso C linical – search for any physical evidence of diet-related diseases (e.g., high BP, skin conditions)o D ietary – examines usual food intake, food allergies, and supplements usedo E nvironment – provides information on the person’s education and economic background, marital status, housing condition - Know leading causes of death in which nutrition plays a roleo 27% diseases of the heart, 23% cancer, 22% cerebrovascular disease (stroke)- Know definitions of RDA, AI, and ULo RDA – recommended dietary allowanceso AI – adequate intakeso UL – tolerable upper intake levels - Know what is required on food label and who regulates ito Labels must include – a statement of identity, net contents of the package, ingredients list, manufacturer’s name and address, nutrition information (nutrition facts panel) Nutrition facts panel – serving size and servings per container, percent daily values (%DV), list of nutrients (fat [total, saturated, trans], cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, protein, some vitamins and minerals)o The FDA (food and drug administration) requires food labels on most products Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products require labels Nutrient content claims and health claims are closely regulate by FDA- Know basic characteristics of the DRI’so Dietary reference intakes (DRI’s) are a comprehensive set of nutrient reference values for healthy populations the can be used for assessing and planning diets. Apply to people in both U.S. and Canada because scientists from both countries work to establish them. o DRI’s reflect the current state of scientific knowledge with respect to nutrient requirements. DRI’s are set for almost 40 nutrientso 5 sets of standards – estimated average requirements (EAR’s), RDA’s, AI’s, UL’s, estimated energy requirements (EER’s)…not a DRI but there is adequate macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR’s)- Know what factors impact of nutrient content in foodo Nutrient Density - a tool for assessing the nutritional quality of an individual food Divide the amount of a nutrient in a serving if the food by your daily recommended intake. Next,divide the calories in a serving if the food by your daily calorie need. Last, compare the two. Sugared soft drinks and junk food often are called empty-calorie foods because they tend to be high in sugar and/or fat but few other nutrients – basically, “calories are empty of nutrients”- Know where majority of digestion occurs in the GI tracto Primary – mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestineo Accessory – liver, pancreas, and gall bladder - Know the function of the portal veino The portal vein transports nutrients from the small intestine and delivers them to the liver- Define peristalsis and segmentation o Peristalsis – contractionso Segmentation – back and forth movements- Know where most digestive enzymes are produced and secretedo Enzymes (amylases, lipases, proteases) are produced in mouth, stomach, small intestine and pancreaso Their functions are to breakdown carbs, fats, and protein into forms small enough for absorptionExam 2 and 3 Content- Know the components of each disaccharide and the components of eacho Disaccharides – two monosaccharaides linked together Maltose – glucose and glucose Sucrose – glucose and fructose Lactose – galactose and glucose- Know the functions of fat and carbohydrateo Functions of digestible carbohydrates – provide energy (4 kcal/g), protein sparing (body doesn’t utilize gluconeogenesis), prevent ketosis (incomplete breakdown of fatty acids), sweetenero Functions of indigestible carbohydrates – promoting bowel health, reducing obesity risk, enhancing blood glucose control, reducing cholesterol absorptiono Functions of fat – concentrated source of energy (9 kcal/g), insulate and protect the body, aid fat solublevitamin absorption and transport, source of essential FA, palatability (flavor and mouth feel), satiety (sense of being full, fat slows down rate of digestion in stomach)- Be able to distinguish mono and polyunsaturated fatty acidso Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) – 1 unsaturated bond Binds to 2 H, C=C double bond. Example is Oleic Acid 18:1o Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) – more than 1 unsaturated bond Examples are Linoleic acid 18:2, Linolenic acid 18:3, Arachidonic acid 20:4- Define gluconeogenesis o Production of new glucose by metabolic pathways in the cell. Amino acids derived from protein usually provide the carbons for this glucose- Know the different ways of classifying fatty acidso Saturated fatty acids [long chain, medium chain, and short chain], monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, Essential fatty acids [omega-3 and omega-6], trans fatty acids- Know the difference between complete, incomplete, and complementary foodso Animal proteins are classified as complete, or high quality, proteins because they contain sufficient amounts of all the essential amino acidso Plant proteins are classified as incomplete, or low-quality, proteins because they contain limited amounts of 1 or more of the essential amino acidso When two or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins are called complementary proteins. When complementary protein sources are combined, the amino acids in one source make up forthe limiting amino acids in the other sources to yield a high-quality (complete protein for the diet)- Define hydrogenation o Adding hydrogen to make an unsaturated fat more saturated, which yields trans fatty acids- Know the RDA for proteino RDA for protein is 0.8g/kg body weight Convert weight from pounds to kilograms [2.2 pounds/kg]-

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KSU NUTR 33512 - Final Exam Study Guide

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