KSU NUTR 33512 - Nutrition Exam 4 Study Guide

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Nutrition Exam 4 Study GuideChapter 11 Material:- Benefits of Regular Exerciseo Enhanced heart functiono Improved Balanceo Reduced risk of fallingo Better sleep habitso Healthier body composition Less body fat, more muscle masso Reduced Injuryo Positivity Affect Blood pressure Blood cholesterol levels Blood glucose regulation Immune Function- Energy Sources for Muscle Useo ATP Immediately usable energy; always! All of the tissues, all of the time*** ATP  ADP + Pi (+energy) Initial 2-4 seconds o Phosphocreatine (PCr) Initial resupply of muscle ATP As ADP increases = enzyme activated to use PCr ADP + PCr  ATP + Cr Works for about 10 seconds Stored in small amounts - All tissues—short bursts (Ex: shot-put, high jump, bench press) o Carbohydrate Major feul for short-term, high-intensity, and medium-term use Pyruvate via Glycolysis- Anaerobic o Without Oxygen during physical activity o Pyruvate accumulates and is converted to lactateo Fast way to resupply ATP, but cannot sustain for longo Energy for 30 seconds—2 minutes  Muscle tissues—high intensity lasting 30 seconds - 2 minutes (Ex: 200 meter sprint)- Aerobico With Oxygen during moderate to low intense exercise o Pyruvate shuttled into mitochondria for complete oxidationo Slower, but yields more and sustained longer (2 minutes – 3 hours) Muscle & liver—exercise lasting 2 minutes – 3 hours (Ex: jogging, basketball, soccer, swimming)o Muscle Glycogen Primary source of ATP during fairly intense for < 2 hours Muscle stored (350g) supply glucose for working muscle Muscles do not take up blood glucose for energy due to hormones- Except when exercise time increase & glycogen stores decrease Depletion causes fatigue o Liver Glycogen Used to maintain blood to allow spare use of muscle glycogen for muscles Liver glycogen (100g) used to maintain blood glucoseo Fat Main fuel for prolonged, low to moderate intensity exercise & at rest Provides more energy than carbohydrates, but is less efficient The more trained muscle is, the greater the muscle ability to use fat as energy- Increased size and number mitochondria- Increased level of enzymes associated with aerobic synthesis- Increased muscle myoglobin—enhances oxygen availability- Increased glycogen sparingo Muscle & Fat cells—exercise lasting more than a few minutes, greater amounts are used to lower exercise intensities (Ex: long distance running, marathons, cycling) o More of a 50/50 type situation depending how long you’re doing each.o Protein Minor fuel source (only 5% of general energy)- Directly from metabolism of branched chain amino acids via gluconeogenesis or they eneter citric acid cycle as precursors to glucose- Up to 15% when glycogen stores are depleted during enduranceo Used least in resistance exercise*- Eating more protein than what the body needs will not increase muscle masso Working muscles through exercise and eating high carbohydrates with moderate protein will because it causes the pancreas to secrete insulin. o Insulin is an anabolic hormone so will cause synthesis of other cellso Your body will now have enough energy to start producing muscle mass instead of using them for energy- Fluid Intakeo Goal is to lose no more than 2% body weighto For every 1 cup lost, 3 cups of fluid should be consumedo Thirst is late sign of dehydrationo Replace fluids before, during and after- Hyponatremia (water intoxication)- Food Intake:o Pre-exercise meal High-carbohydrate, low fat Meal timingo Post-exercise meal 30 minutes – 2 hours post Optimal 4:1 (carbohydrate : protein) ratioChapter 12 Material:Know the high sources of something and the deficiencies between them (A, D, K, E)- Classification of Vitamins o Fat-Soluble  Vitamin A, D, E, Ko Water-Soluble  B-Vitamins, and Vitamin C- Overview of Vitamin Absorptiono Fat-Soluble  Absorbed along with dietary fat Adequate absorption depends on- Fat consumption- Pancreatic lipase- Bile in small intestine  Stored in liver or adipose tissue***o Water-Soluble Absorbed in small intestine independent of dietary fat Absorbed into bloodstream Distributed throughout body- Transporting Fat in the Bloodo Fat is transported as a lipoprotein Lipid core, shell composed of proteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol- Vitamins A & D are most likely to be toxic. ***- Vitamin Ao Retinoids  Active form Preformed Vitamin A = from animal origin sources such as retinol and retinyl esters- Retinyl esters must separate into retinol and fatty acids before activation- After absorption, retinol reattaches to fatty acids to become retinyl esters and packaged into chylomicron 3 Forms:- Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid Liver, fish, and fish oils, fortified milk, eggs, fortified productso Carotenoids Cause a yellow-orange pigment in fruits and vegetables Provitamin A = it needs to be changed Carrots, spinach, winter squash, sweet potato, broccoli, mango, cantaloupe, peaches, apricots  Inside intestinal cells- Cleaved from retinal or retinoic acido Retinoic acid enters bloodstream directly to the livero All carotenoids can enter the bloodsteam directly, but this occurs to a lesser extent o Released from livero Over 90% stored in livero Functions: Retinoids- Growth and Development- Cell Differentiation - Vision- Immune Function  Carotenoids- Decrease risk of certain diseaseso Night Blindness, Conjuctival Xerosis (Blind Spots)o Toxicity: Hypervitaminosis A- Vitamin Do “Conditional” Vitamin or Prohormone  “Sunshine Vitamin”o High Sources: Fisho Influences on D3 Activation: Sunlight exposure (time of day or year) Geographical Location (Latitude)  Age Skin color SPF (sunscreen)- 7-dehydrocholesterol + UV light  Cholecalcferol (inactive D3)- Cholecalciferol enters blood and travels to liver - Calcidiol travels to the kidney- Calcidiol  Calcitriol (active D3) Synthesis is regulated by the parathyroid hormone and kidneys- Low blood calcium, parathyroid hormone increases- Parathyroid hormone increases production of vitamin D3 in kidney- Restores calcium balance o Activated in Kidneyo Functions:  Regulates body’s concentration of calcium and phosphorous Bone formation o Deficiency Diseases Rickets (children) Osteomalacia (adults)o Toxicity: hypercalcemia (leads to calcium deposits in soft tissue (kidney, heart, lungs), anorexia, N/V, bone demineralization,

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KSU NUTR 33512 - Nutrition Exam 4 Study Guide

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