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UD COMM 330 - EXAM 3 Notes

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Hailey BaumTextbook Readings: 85-93, 53-65, 66-77, 79-84, 121-133, 155-162Pg.85-94:- Self-Disclosure – Defined as verbal communication that reveals something about a person to others.o Nonverbal self-disclosure (for example): Wearing a religious symbol or particular clothing to disclose information about a person’s affiliationso Most self-disclosure is verbal!- Social Penetration Theory – Self-disclosure increases gradually as people develop their relationships.o 6 Dimensions of Self-Disclosure:1. Depth – How personal/deep the communication2. Breadth – How many topics a person feels free discussing3. Frequency – How often people self-disclose 4. Duration – How long people self-disclose for5. Valence – Positive/negative: Dreams are positive valence and nightmares are negative6. Veracity – How honest or deceptive disclosure isDepth & Breadth:- Most central to the process of relationship development.- “Slow unpeeling of an onion” (Thin/flimsy outer layer, but as you peel through layers, they get harder with the core of the onion tightly bound.)- Altman and Taylor suggested that there are 3 basic layers of self-disclosure:1. A superficial layer that is easy to penetrate (telling someone your name or zodiac sign)2. A social or personal layer that is easy for most friends, family members, and lovers to penetrate (likes/dislikes, hopes/fears)3. A very intimate layer, or core, that is seldom revealed, and then only to people who are completely trusted (all personal details)SuperficialDepthSocialBreadthCoreFrequency & Duration:- Example: If you have to work on a project with someone you don’t know well, you may have to meet with them more frequently (self-disclosure would be low in depth and breadth, but high in frequency.)- Frequent self-disclosure can lead to liking and relationship development.- Limited frequency (meeting and talking to a stranger on the plane  you are more likely to self-disclose because you’ll never see them again.)o Online interactions can be similar to the “stranger on plane” phenomenon.- Friends do not need frequent contact to stay close as long as they periodically have long, in depth conversations.Valence (think of charge) & Veracity:- Disclosing dreams  positive valence- Valence is a crucial dimension of self-disclosure because it helps determine how we feel about one another.- Couples show an increase in depth of self-disclosure when they’re continually arguing/when their relationship is in decline (“I wish I’d never met you,” “You never listen.”)- They key is to limit the number of negatively valanced disclosures relative to the number of more positively valanced disclosures.Self-Disclosure & Liking:- Disclosure-liking Hypothesis – Predicts that when a sender discloses to a receiver, the receiver will like the sender more (receiving more in-depth disclosure  more liking/closeness).- Liking-disclosure Hypothesis – Predicts that people will disclose more to receivers they like (close friends).- Circumstances that affect whether self-disclosure leads to liking or disliking:o Timing of disclosureo How personalistic disclosure iso Means by which someone discloseso Partner’s response to disclosureTiming of Self-Disclosure:- When self-disclosure violates normative expectations, it will not lead to liking (disclosingtoo much information too quickly or negative information).- “Highly personal, negative disclosure given too soon inhibits liking unless some strong initial attraction already exists.”Personalistic vs. Nondirected Disclosure:- Self-disclosure is a better predictor of liking when receivers think that their partner only discloses information to certain special people (less valuable if disclosed to everyone).- Personalistic Disclosure – Self-disclosure is valuable to the extent that people think it is directed at them.- Nondirected Disclosure – Disclosure that is sent to large groups of people rather than individuals (blogs/social networking  unless you direct message someone).The Channel:- Communication channel: face-to-face or mediated- Walther’s Hyperpersonal Model – People develop stronger impressions of one another in mediated contexts compared to face-to-face because they over-rely on the limited, mostlyverbal information they exchange.- Intensification Effect – People over-rely on the limited, mostly verbal information they exchange, leading to stronger feelings of closeness compared to what they might feel in a face-to-face conversation.The Receiver’s Response:- For relationships to flourish in initial steps, self-disclosure must be reciprocated.- Dyadic Effect – Occurs when a person reveals information and partner returns by offeringinformation of similar value of intimacy (equally personal stories)o Natural pull toward matching level of intimacy and intensity- Immediate reciprocity (when married) is not necessary because long-term partners know that the will have opportunities to reciprocate in the future.- Reciprocity is the norm in face-to-face, but not always in mediated contexts (you do not normally respond to a blog)Risks Associated with Self-Disclosure:- Fear of exposure or rejection- Fear of retaliation or angry responses- Fear of loss of control- Fear of losing one’s individualityPg.53-65:The Motivation to Reduce Uncertainty:- People generally dislike uncertainty and are therefore motivated to reduce it (we do our best to create predictable environments).- Uncertainty Management Theory – Argues that uncertainty is not inherently good or inherently bad, but something that is managed.- Uncertainty can reduce negative emotions (when not knowing is better)- Uncertainty can produce neutral emotions (when it doesn’t matter whether you know or don’t know more about the issue)- Uncertainty can produce positive emotions (joy over a surprise party)- Dialectics Theory – Supports the idea that people sometimes find uncertainty exciting rather than confusing or anxiety-provoking.o People want both certainty (predictability) and uncertainty (novelty) in their relationships.The Relationship Between Communication and Uncertainty:- People communicate to get information and reduce uncertainty, especially during initial encounters with others.- As communication increases  uncertainty decreases- Planalp and Honeycutt’s research showed 6 uncertainty-increasing behaviors:o For all 6 types of behavior, the participants felt less able to predict their friend or dating


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