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UD COMM 330 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study GuideTypes of Deception - Lies (falsification) – a statement that isn’t true.o 2 Types: 1. Self-serving – purpose: to help yourself.2. Altruistic – purpose: to help others. Lying to save face/feelings, lying for a good reason.- Ex: “Santa Clause is real!” - Concealment – leaving information out  not letting them see the truth.o Ex: “I was at Deer Park” hidden: on a date - Equivocation – response is confusing.o Ex: giving a lot of details - Understatements & Exaggerations – making something bigger and better or sound less than it is.o Ex: “This is going to be the most beautiful thing ever”  exaggeration o Ex: “The painting isn’t a Picasso…”  understatement Altruistic vs Self-Serving Lies – Video - Everyone tried to save the artists feelings.- Women more then men.o The way men & women are socialized growing up has made women better at communication. o Men & women differ in the kinds of lies they tell and the people they lie to. Men are more likely to lie to impress people. Women are more likely to tell altruistic lies to other women.o 1/3 every person you talk to will lie to you.Theory of Mind: Deception and Child Development - Video- Theory of mind – the ability to know that everyone has their own mind.o In order to lie effectively children must understand that everyone has their own minds. Deception and Leadership - Correlation between leadership skill and how good of a liar they are.o This doesn’t mean leaders lie more, it’s just harder to catch them.- Leadership & nonverbal  people spend most of the time looking at the person others view with the most leadership. Video - The leaders in the plane crash problem were selected as the best liars.o When a leader lies, they’re going to be good at it.- Baby face = more likely to be believed  “I’m vulnerable” - Bias toward attractive people  more trust.How To Catch A Liar- People look for 2 things: 1. Deception Clues – information that doesn’t match the facts, tells us were being lied to. Ex: something that must be a lie because information doesn’t add up.2. Leakage Clues – Info that leaks out that we’re trying to hide  tells us something is going on. Ex: Micro-expressions Ex: “I’m not nervous” + nonverbal signs of nervous = leakage clue- Problem: Leakage clues don’t always guarantee lying (FBI can’t usethem because everyone looks nervous) Catching a Killer with Deception Clues – Video- Susan Smith – a grief stricken mother.  Sheriff exposed lies in case of the “kidnap” of her children.o Susan smiled when telling the sheriff, she was not sexually assaulted  leakage clue. o Sheriff hopes more leakage clues will come out on television. Susan tells the details of the incident repeatedly with inconsistencies. o Average viewer: no tears = no emotions  people think that nonverbals are proof of lying.o Details of story gave her away  no opposing traffic in intersection she claimed to be at = deception clue.How To Increase Chances That Liar Shows Deception Clues - Try to INCREASE the demand placed on the liars cognitive encoding process. o This makes it hard for someone to put ideas into words. o Encoding = thoughts  speech - Give them little opportunity to plan aheado Don’t give them a heads up.- Ask open-ended questions – questions that have more than a yes/no answer.o Ex: “What happened to the $100?”- Ask the same question at different times o Multiple times - Ask for mundane details  things people don’t think about / aren’t planning to talk abouto Ex: “What was the drink special?” - Point out inconsistencies and ask for clarification. o Ex: “The wings special was tonight and last night?”Types of Verbal and Non Verbal Leakage Clues- Leakage = something going on inside emotionally o Non-verbal things that show we’re covering up something inside.o Doesn’t always mean deception.- Slips of the tongue – when you say something without realizing what you just said / accidental statement that slips out. - Body movements – shows us some kind of tension is there but is not definite lying. o Ex: crossing your arms, playing with your hair, looking away- Micro-expressions – emotions that cannot be controlled & happen fasto Ex: Anger: 1. Eyebrows down and together2. Eyes glare3. narrowing of the lips The Polygraph - What does the polygraph actually measure?o Sweat and heart rateo Blood pressure o Nervousness o Breathing Machine doesn’t say lie or false, the person administering the test decides based off the question responses.- Reasons to question the validity of the polygraph: o The polygraph can tell deception 75% of the time.o We can’t separate the nervousness/stress/excitement- 2 Kinds of polygraph questions o Relevant – questions with obvious answers. Ex: “What’s today?” o Controlled – dispersed throughout test, believed to elicit physiological responses from people. Ex: “Have you ever stolen?” Lying about emotions- Lying is harder to do when we have to lie about our feelings.o Especially if those feelings are strong.o Non-verbals are harder to fake  Ex: holding back crying - Lying about emotions often produces leakage cues. - According to Eckman, lies also fail because of the feelings we have about lying.1. Deception Apprehension – fear of being caught2. Deception Guilt – the more guilty you feel, the more likely you’ll show emotion. As these emotions of fear and guilt about lying increase, liars are more likely to make mistakes and get caught.Deception Apprehension (fear of being caught) - Things that make fear go up in a target - Target is suspicious or known to be tough to fool.- Liar has little practice and no record of success.- Stakes are high or serious punishment at stake.o As fear goes up your more likely to make a mistake.- The punishment for being caught lying is great.- The target in no way benefits from the lie.Deception Guilt (feeling guilty about lying) - Ways to increase guilt- Target does not agree to be lied to. o Do you have permission to lie?- The deceit is totally selfish and target derives no benefit.- The deceit is unauthorized.o Not something you’re supposed to lie to.- The liar and target share social values.o The more a liar see’s you as an equal, the more guilt.- The target is personally acquainted with the liar.o The more you know the liar the worse you should feel.SUMMARY – How to Catch a

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