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UT Arlington NURS 5315 - Chapter 10 Exam

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Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1Chapter 10: InfectionMcCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th EditionMULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide?a. Starvationb. Traumatic injuryc. Cardiovascular diseased. Infectious diseaseANS: DDespite the wide-scale implementation of progressive public health and immunization policies, infectious disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The other options are not as significant.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 2. What is the first stage in the infectious process?a. Invasionb. Colonizationc. Spreadd. MultiplicationANS: BFrom the perspective of the microorganisms that cause disease, the infectious process undergoes four separate stages of progression: (1) colonization, (2) invasion, (3) multiplication, and (4) spread.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 3. Which type of microorganism reproduces on the skin?a. Virusesb. Bacteria and fungic. Protozoa and Rickettsiaed. MycoplasmaANS: BOnly bacteria and fungi have the capacity to reproduce on the skin.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 4. Phagocytosis involves neutrophils actively attacking, engulfing, and destroying which microorganisms?a. Bacteriab. Fungic. Virusesd. YeastsANS: AInvasion is the direct confrontation with an individual’s primary defense mechanisms against only bacteria, which include the complement system, antibodies, and phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages. Fungi, viruses, and yeasts are not phagocytosed.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 5. Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do natural killer (NK) cells actively attack?a. Bacteriab. Fungic. Virusesd. MycoplasmaANS: CNK cells are the principal defenders against only tumor cells or virally infected cells.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 6. A student asks the healthcare professional to describe exotoxins. Which statement by the professional is best?a. Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.b. Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria.c. Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.d. Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth.ANS: DExotoxins are proteins released during bacterial growth. Exotoxins are not contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, released during lysis of bacterial, or able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: UnderstandingCopyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 7. A healthcare professional student is learning about fungal infections. What information should the student use to help another student understand?a. Fungal infections occur only on skin, hair, and nails.b. Phagocytes and T lymphocytes control fungal infections.c. Fungal infections release endotoxins.d. Vaccines prevent fungal infections.ANS: BThe host defense against fungal infection includes the fungistatic properties of neutrophils and macrophages. T lymphocytes are crucial in limiting the extent of infection and producing cytokines to further activate macrophages. Fungi infect other tissue types such as vaginal or gastrointestinal. Fungi do not release endotoxins; they reside in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. Fungal infections are not prevented by current vaccines.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding 8. Cytokines are thought to cause fevers by stimulating the synthesis of which chemical mediator?a. Leukotrieneb. Histaminec. Prostaglandind. BradykininANS: CCytokines seem to raise the thermoregulatory set point through stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis and turnover in thermoregulatory (brain) and nonthermoregulatory (peripheral) tissues. Leukotrienes, histamine, and bradykinin are not directly related to fever production.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 9. Considering the hypothalamus, what is a fever produced by?a. Endogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamusb. Exogenous pyrogens acting directly on the hypothalamusc. Immune complexes acting indirectly on the hypothalamusd. Cytokines acting indirectly on the hypothalamusANS: AExogenous pyrogens indirectly affect the hypothalamus through the release of endogenous pyrogens by cells of the host, however; a number of cytokines have been identified as endogenous pyrogens and these act directly on the hypothalamus. Neither immune complexes nor cytokines are involved in the process.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 10. A healthcare professional is conducting community education on vaccinations. Which statement about vaccines does the professional include in the presentation?a. Most bacterial vaccines contain attenuated organisms.b. Most viral vaccines are made by using dead organisms.c. Vaccines require booster injections to maintain life-long protection.d. Vaccines provide effective protection against most infections.ANS: CIn general, vaccine-induced protection does not persist as long as infection-induced immunity, thus booster injections may be necessary to maintain protection throughout the life. Some common bacterial vaccines are killed microorganisms, extracts of bacterial antigens, or toxoids.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding 11. What are vaccines against viruses created from?a. Killed organisms or extracts of antigensb. Live organisms weakened to produce antigensc. Purified toxins that have been chemically detoxifiedd. Recombinant pathogenic proteinANS: BMost vaccines against viral infections (e.g., measles, mumps, rubella, varicella [chickenpox], rotavirus) contain live viruses that are weakened (attenuated) to continue expressing the appropriate antigens but are unable to establish more than a limited and easily controlled infection. Vaccines against viruses do not contain extracts of antigens, purified toxins, or recombinant pathogenic proteins.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 12. What does the student learn about HIV?a. HIV only infects T-helper (Th) cells.b. HIV is a retrovirus.c. HIV carries genetic information in its DNA.d. HIV has five identified strains.ANS: BHIV is a member of the retrovirus family, which carries genetic information in the form of two copies of RNA. The major immunologic finding in AIDS is the striking decrease in the number of CD4+ Th cells. The major surface receptor on the HIV virus binds to the CD4 molecule found mostly on the


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