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UT Arlington NURS 5315 - Chapter 24 Exam

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Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1Chapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive SystemsMcCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th EditionMULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The initial reproductive structures of the male and female embryos appear the same until which week of gestation?a. Thirdb. Seventhc. Twentiethd. ThirtiethANS: BDifferentiation of the male and female reproductive system begins at about 6 to 7 weeks of embryonic gestation.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 2. The absence of which major hormone is a determinant of sexual differentiation (Wolffian system) in utero?a. Estrogenb. Progesteronec. Growth hormoned. TestosteroneANS: DIn the presence of estrogen and the absence of testosterone, a loss of the Wolffian system occurs and the two gonads develop into ovaries at 6 to 8 weeks’ gestation. Growth hormone and progesterone are not involved in this differentiation.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 3. Which gland produces the associated hormones that are found in high levels in a female fetus?a. Posterior pituitary excretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).b. Hypothalamus excretes luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).c. Anterior pituitary produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).d. Hypothalamus excretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).ANS: CIn the female fetus, the anterior pituitary produces and excretes high levels of two gonadotropins—FSH and LH.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 4. A mother reports that her young teens have voracious appetites. The healthcare professional would explain that which hormone is linked to an increase in appetite during puberty?a. Inhibinb. Leptinc. Activind. FollistatinANS: BThe healthcare professional would explain that sensitivity to leptin, which regulates appetite and energy metabolism, increases during puberty. Inhibin inhibits FSH production. Activin stimulates the secretion of FSH. Follistatin inhibits activin and stimulates inhibin activity.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding 5. The Skene glands are located on either side of which structure?a. Introitusb. Urinary meatusc. Clitorisd. VestibuleANS: BThe ducts of the Skene glands are located on either side of the urinary meatus.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 6. What is the function of the mucus secreted by the Bartholin glands?a. Enhancement of the motility of spermb. Lubrication of the urinary meatus and vestibulec. Maintenance of an acid-base balance to discourage infectiond. Enhancement of the size of the penis during intercourseANS: AIn response to sexual stimulation, the Bartholin glands secrete mucus that serves to lubricate the inner labial surfaces, as well as to enhance the viability and motility of sperm. Skene glands lubricate the urinary meatus and vestibule. Maintaining acid–base balance is a function of the vagina to discourage the growth of pathogenic organisms. Stimulation of penile mechanoreceptors assists in enlargement of the penis in erections.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: RememberingCopyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 7. Which change is a result of puberty and defends the vagina from infection?a. The pH stabilizes between 7 and 8.b. A thin squamous epithelial lining develops.c. Vaginal pH becomes more acidic.d. Estrogen levels are low.ANS: CAt puberty, the pH becomes more acidic (4 to 5) and the squamous epithelial lining thickens. These changes are maintained until menopause (cessation of menstruation), at which time the pH rises again to more alkaline levels and the epithelium thins out. Therefore protection from infection is greatest during the years when a woman is most likely to be sexually active. Estrogen does not play a role in infection protection.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 8. What happens to the vagina’s lining at puberty?a. It becomes thinner.b. It becomes thicker.c. It assumes a neutral pH.d. It undergoes atrophy.ANS: BBefore puberty, vaginal pH is approximately 7 (neutral) and the vaginal epithelium is thin. At puberty, the pH becomes more acidic (4 to 5) and the squamous epithelial lining thickens. Cell atrophy is not associated with puberty.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 9. Which structure is lined with columnar epithelial cells?a. Perimetriumb. Endocervical canalc. Myometriumd. VaginaANS: BOf the available options, only the endocervical canal does not have an endometrial layer; rather, the layer is lined with columnar epithelial cells.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 10. Where is the usual site of fertilization of an ovum?a. Trumpet end of the fallopian tubesb. Fimbriae of the fallopian tubesc. Ampulla of the fallopian tubesd. Os of the fallopian tubesANS: CThe ampulla, or distal third, of the fallopian tube is the usual site of fertilization.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 11. Where is the usual site of cervical dysplasia or cancer in situ?a. Squamous epithelium of the cervix meets the cuboidal epithelium of the vagina.b. Columnar epithelium of the cervix meets the squamous epithelium of the uterus.c. Squamous epithelium of the cervix meets the columnar epithelium of the uterus.d. Columnar epithelium of the cervix meets the squamous epithelium of the vagina.ANS: DThe point at which the columnar epithelium of the cervix meets the squamous epithelium of the vagina is called the transformation zone or the squamous-columnar junction. The transformation zone is especially susceptible to the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), which leads to cervical dysplasia and, ultimately, cervical cancer; these are the cells sampled during a Papanicolaou (Pap) test.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 12. Having ejected a mature ovum, what does the ovarian follicle develop into?a. Atretic follicleb. Theca folliclec. Corpus luteumd. Functional scarANS: CHaving ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into the corpus luteum. The remaining follicles either fail to develop at all or degenerate without maturing completely and are known as atretic follicles. Theca cells produce androgens that migrate to granulosa cells. Scar tissue serves no reproductive purpose.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: RememberingCopyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 13. The mucosal secretions of the cervix secrete


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