New version page

UT Arlington NURS 5315 - Chapter 21 Exam

Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1-2 out of 6 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1Chapter 21: Mechanisms of Hormonal RegulationMcCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th EditionMULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What imbalance lessens the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?a. Increased serum calcium levelsb. Decreased serum magnesium levelsc. Decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormoned. Increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormoneANS: APTH is the single most important regulator of serum calcium. When serum calcium levels are low, PTH secretion is stimulated; when calcium levels are high, PTH secretion is inhibited. PTH secretion is not inhibited by magnesium or thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 2. Regulation of the release of insulin is an example of which type of regulation?a. Negative feedbackb. Positive feedbackc. Neurald. PhysiologicANS: CHormone release is governed by three factors: chemical factors, endocrine factors, and neural control. An example of neural control is when insulin is secreted in response to increased glucose in the blood. Negative feedback is seen when changes occur in chemical, endocrine, or neural control that lead to decreased synthesis or secretion of a hormone. Positive feedback occurs when changes in one of the factors lead to increased synthesis or secretion of a hormone. “Physiologic” is not a specific type of regulation.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 3. A student asks the professor how a faulty negative-feedback mechanism results in a hormonal imbalance. What response by the professor is best?a. Hormones are not synthesized in response to cellular and tissue activities.b. Decreased hormonal secretion is a response to rising hormone levels.c. Too little hormone production is initiated.d. Excessive hormone production results from a failure to turn off the system.ANS: DNegative-feedback systems are important in maintaining hormones within physiologic ranges. The lack of negative-feedback inhibition on hormonal release often results in pathologic conditions. Excessive hormone production, which is the result of the failure to turn off the system in response to changes in chemical, endocrine, or neurologic factors, can cause various hormonal imbalances and related conditions. Hormones are synthesized in response to cellular and tissue activities, but not appropriately.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding 4. Which substance is a water-soluble protein hormone?a. Thyroxineb. Aldosteronec. Follicle-stimulating hormoned. InsulinANS: DPeptide or protein hormones, such as insulin, pituitary, hypothalamic, and parathyroid, are water soluble and circulate in free (unbound) forms. All the remaining options are fat-soluble hormones.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 5. Which of these is a lipid-soluble hormone?a. Cortisolb. Oxytocinc. Epinephrined. Growth hormoneANS: ACortisol and adrenal androgens are lipid-soluble hormones and are primarily bound to a carrier or transport protein in circulation. The other options are water-soluble hormones.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: RememberingCopyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 6. Most protein hormones are transported in the bloodstream and are what?a. Bound to a lipid-soluble carrierb. Free in an unbound, water-soluble formc. Bound to a water soluble-binding proteind. Free because of their lipid-soluble chemistryANS: BPeptide or protein hormones, such as insulin, pituitary, hypothalamic, and parathyroid, are water soluble and circulate in free (unbound) forms. They are not bound to carriers or lipid soluble.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 7. When insulin binds its receptors on muscle cells, an increase in glucose uptake by the muscle cells is the result. This is an example of what type of effect by a hormone?a. Pharmacologicb. Permissivec. Synergisticd. DirectANS: DDirect effects are the obvious changes in cell function that specifically result from the stimulation by a particular hormone. The term pharmacologic could be used to describe the effect of a medication on a hormone. Permissive effects encourage maximum response of functioning of a cell. Synergistic means that two separate entities work together to create a bigger result than either one would have alone; this is not a type of hormone effect.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is released to stimulate thyroid hormone (TH) and is inhibited when plasma levels of TH are adequate. What is this an example of?a. Positive feedbackb. Negative feedbackc. Neural regulationd. Physiologic regulationANS: BFeedback systems provide precise monitoring and control of the cellular environment. Negative feedback occurs because the changing chemical, neural, or endocrine response to a stimulus negates the initiating change that triggered the release of the hormone. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates TSH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Secretion of TSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of THs. Increasing levels of T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) then generate negative feedback on the pituitary and hypothalamus to inhibit TRH and TSH synthesis. A positive feedback loop would have the opposite effect. Neural regulation is a type of hormonal control that involves the nervous system. Physiologic is not a specific type of hormone regulation.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 9. A person wants to know if eating only plant-based foods is advisable as a way to cut cholesterol to near-zero levels. What response by the health care professional is best?a. “No, you will become extremely malnourished.”b. “Yes, that is an effective way to eliminate cholesterol.”c. “No, many hormones are made from cholesterol.”d. “Yes, that will increase the action of insulin.”ANS: CAll the lipid-soluble hormones except thyroid hormone are synthesized from cholesterol, so it is a needed substance in the body. Vegetarian and vegan diets can be healthy so malnutrition is not the issue. Insulin is water soluble.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding 10. Which second messenger is stimulated by epinephrine binding to a β-adrenergic receptor?a. Calciumb. Inositol triphosphate (IP3)c. Diacylglycerol (DAG)d. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)ANS: DSecond-messenger molecules are the initial link between the first signal (hormone) and the inside of the cell. For


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Chapter 21 Exam and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Chapter 21 Exam and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?