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UT Arlington NURS 5315 - Chapter 15 Exam

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Copyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1Chapter 15: Structure and Function of the Neurologic SystemMcCance/Huether: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis of Disease in Adults and Children, 8th EditionMULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which pathway carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS)?a. Ascendingb. Descendingc. Somaticd. EfferentANS: APeripheral nerve pathways can be afferent (ascending) pathways that carry sensory impulses toward the CNS. Efferent, or descending, pathways innervate effector organs. “Somatic” is a branch of the peripheral nervous system and consists of both motor and sensory pathways.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 2. Which type of axon transmits a nerve impulse at the highest rate?a. Large nonmyelinatedb. Large myelinatedc. Small nonmyelinatedd. Small myelinatedANS: BA myelinated axon has a myelin sheath wrapped around it which functions as an insulating substance that speeds impulse propagation. The diameter of the myelinated axon also affects the speed of nerve impulse transmission with larger diameter axons transmitting at a faster speed than smaller ones.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 3. Which nerves are capable of regeneration?a. Nerves within the brain and spinal cordb. Peripheral nerves that are cut or severedc. Myelinated nerves in the peripheral nervous systemd. Unmyelinated nerves of the peripheral nervous systemANS: CNerve regeneration is limited to only myelinated fibers and generally occurs only in the peripheral nervous system.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 4. Where is the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, secreted?a. Somatic nervous systemb. Parasympathetic preganglionc. Sympathetic postgangliond. Parasympathetic postganglionANS: CMost postganglionic sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine (adrenaline). Norepinephrine is not secreted in the somatic nervous system, sympathetic preganglion, or parasympathetic postganglion.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 5. Both oligodendroglia and Schwann cells share the ability to do what?a. Form a myelin sheathb. Remove cellular debrisc. Transport nutrientsd. Line the ventriclesANS: AThe function of oligodendroglia (oligodendrocytes) is to deposit myelin within the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendroglia are the CNS counterpart of Schwann cells. Microglia remove cellular debris. Astrocytes transport nutrients. Ependymal cells line the ventricles.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 6. During a synapse, what change occurs after the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor?a. The permeability of the presynaptic neuron changes; consequently, its membrane potential is changed as well.b. The permeability of the postsynaptic neuron changes; consequently, its membrane potential is changed as well.c. The postsynaptic cell prevents any change in permeability and destroys the action potential.d. The presynaptic cell synthesizes and secretes additional neurotransmitters.ANS: BThe binding of the neurotransmitter at the receptor site changes the permeability of the postsynaptic neuron and, consequently, its membrane potential. The remaining options do not accurately describe the occurrence.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: RememberingCopyright © 2019, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 7. What name is given to a large network of neurons within the brainstem that is essential for maintaining wakefulness?a. Midbrainb. Reticular activating systemc. Medulla oblongatad. PonsANS: BThe reticular activating system is essential for maintaining wakefulness. The midbrain connects the forebrain with the hindbrain. The pons is in the Metencephalon and transmits information from the cerebellum to the brainstem between the two cerebellar hemispheres.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 8. Thought and goal-oriented behaviors are functions of which area of the brain?a. Cerebellumb. Limbic systemc. Prefrontal lobed. Occipital lobeANS: CThe prefrontal area is responsible for goal-oriented behavior (i.e., ability to concentrate), short-term or recall memory, and the elaboration of thought and inhibition on the limbic (emotional) areas of the CNS. The cerebellum is responsible for reflexive, involuntary fine-tuning of motor control and for maintaining balance and posture through extensive neural connections with the medulla and with the midbrain. The limbic system mediates emotion and long-term memory through connections in the prefrontal cortex (limbic cortex). Its principal effects are involved in primitive behavioral responses, visceral reaction to emotion, motivation, mood, feeding behaviors, biologic rhythms, and the sense of smell. The occipital lobe lies caudal to the parietooccipital sulci and superior to the cerebellum. The primary visual cortex is located in this region and receives input from the retinas. Much of the remainder of this lobe is involved in visual association.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 9. Where is the region responsible for the motor aspects of speech located?a. Wernicke area in the temporal lobeb. Broca speech area in the frontal lobec. Wronka area in the parietal lobed. Barlow area in the occipital lobeANS: BBroca speech area is the only region responsible for the motor aspects of speech. Wernicke area is responsible for reception and interpretation of speech. Wronka and Barlow areas were not discussed in the text.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 10. Parkinson disease is associated with defects in which area of the brain?a. Thalamusb. Medulla oblongatac. Cerebellumd. Substantia nigraANS: DParkinson disease is a condition associated with defects of the substantia nigra and destruction of dopamine-secreting neurons. No current research supports the role of the thalamus, medulla oblongata, or the cerebellum in Parkinson disease.PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering 11. Maintenance of a constant internal environment and the implementation of behavioral patterns are main functions of which area of the brain?a. Thalamusb. Epithalamusc. Subthalamusd. HypothalamusANS: DHypothalamic function falls into two major areas: (1) maintenance of a constant internal environment and (2) implementation of behavioral patterns. The epithalamus forms the roof of the third ventricle and composes the most superior portion of the diencephalon, which controls vital functions and visceral activities. The subthalamus flanks the hypothalamus laterally and serves as an important basal ganglia center for motor


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