UIUC PSYC 238 - Unit 3 - Classification of Abnormal Behavior (33 pages)

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Unit 3 - Classification of Abnormal Behavior



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UNIT THREE Classification of Maladaptive Behavior What is classification Classification subdividing or organizing a set of related objects Animals Historical Periods and Music are subdivided and organized in various ways Why use a classification system Benefit a shared scientific language facilitates description aids treatment decisions prognosis facilitates research on etiology treatment facilitates 3rd party reimbursement Why use a classification system Concerns stigmatization and marginalization expectations for behavior may change as result unrelated problems may be misattributed to diagnosis Rosenhan Study Describing Classification Systems What do the items in each group have in common 1 2 COAL 3 Stroke Heart Categories vs Dimensions Categorical Approach reflects a difference in kind or quality Dimensional Approach focuses on the amount of a particular characteristic an object possesses H E I G H T Approaches to Classifying Maladaptive Behavior Categorical Approach people with Maladaptive behaviors are qualitatively different from normal people discrete groups not depressed depressed Are you Depressed Yes No Categorical Approach 80 percent 60 40 20 35 65 0 depressed depressed not depressed Approaches to Classifying Maladaptive Behavior Dimensional Approach people with Maladaptive behaviors are quantitatively different continuum very depressed mildly depressed not at all depressed X How Depressed are you 0 Not at all 1 2 3 Extremely 4 Approaches to Classifying Maladaptive Behavior Threshold Approach combines categorical and dimensional very depressed mildly depressed not at all depressed X How Depressed are you 0 1 2 Not at all Legend 0 1 Not Depressed 2 and above Depressed 3 Extremely 4 DSM 5 No more axes Combined Axis I III IV and V recorded separately consistent with International Classification of Disease ICD Concerns regarding Reliability Validity Evaluation of DSM 5 Reliability consistency of measurements including diagnostic decisions Example inter rater reliability refers to agreement of raters about observations Reliability Test Clinician Observed Predicted Outcome Test score or performance Diagnosi s Validity Evaluation of DSM 5 Validity meaning or importance of a classification system conceptualized as a continuum of more to less useful i e classification systems are more to less valid But valid for what We need to ask how meaningful is it for a desired purpose Is the SAT valid if we re assessing aptitude not artistic abilities Reliable and Valid 1 2 LARRY 3 CURLY M O Validity Evaluation of DSM 5 Types of Validity Etiological concerned with the specific factors that are regularly and perhaps uniquely associated with a particular disorder Predictive concerned with the accuracy of predicting future treatment and treatment outcomes Example Illustration of Etiological Validity Classification System 1 Cause A B C D Disorder A1 B1 C1 D1 Classification System 2 Cause A B C D Disorder A1 B1 C1 D1 Limitations of the DSM 5 Arbitrary boundary between normal and Maladaptive behavior Cutoff points not always empirically justified Reliance on clinicians subjective judgment Time periods in definitions of diagnoses Problem of Comorbidity defined as simultaneous appearance of two or more disorders in the same person 56 of those who meet criteria for one disorder also meet criteria for at least one other disorder Some quick points about 1 neuroanatomy 2 the role of classical and operant conditioning on psychological disorders Special Topic The Neuron The Synapse Brain Lobes Behavior Learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational Learning Classical Conditioning Type of learning that occurs when two stimuli are paired so that a neutral stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus which then elicits a reflexive behavior Unconditioned stimulus UCS Unconditioned response UCR Conditioned stimulus CS Conditioned response CR Classical Conditioning of Fear Little Albert Classical Conditioning How can classical conditioning help explain the following Anxiety disorders Substance abuse dependence Operant Conditioning Learning that depends on the consequences of our actions Contingent upon the way in which you operate in your environment Relies on 2 types of consequences Reinforcement Punishment Operant Conditioning 4 Types Operant Conditioning Note that positive here does NOT mean good and negative here does not mean bad Instead they refer to the production or removal of consequence event circumstan ce The last several times David has started up his old beat up car it has backfired loudly causing him to startle When he starts up his car today David startles even though the car did not backfire We would say that David has experienced a b c d operant conditioning classical conditioning observational learning diathesis stress Observational Learning Learning through watching what happens to others Also referred to as modeling or social learning Observational learning is NOT the same thing as imitation


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