UIUC PSYC 238 - Unit 2 - Causes of Abnormal Behavior (34 pages)

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Unit 2 - Causes of Abnormal Behavior



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Causes of Maladaptive Behavior UNIT TWO On the Menu Today Four psychological paradigms Systems theory Behavior genetics What is a Paradigm A set of shared assumptions about the substance of a theory how scientists should collect data and test theoretical propositions 4 Basic Psychological Paradigms Psychodynamic Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic Biological 4 Basic Psychological Paradigms Psychodynamic 4 Basic Psychological Paradigms Cognitive Behavioral 4 Basic Psychological Paradigms Humanistic 4 Basic Psychological Paradigms Biological Which paradigm is correct The blind men and the elephant Which paradigm is correct Two answers Each individual paradigm is correct 2 All or some of them integrated together are correct 1 This approach is a Systems theory or biopsychosocial approach Biological Psychologic al Social On the Menu Today Four psychological paradigms Systems theory Behavior genetics Systems Theory Definition No one paradigm offers the right approach Systems theory integrates evidence from the biological psychological and social domains The centerpiece of systems theory is Holism whole more than the sum of parts The opposite of holism is Reductionism whole sum of its parts Systems Theory Causality Diathesis Stress Model Diathesis existing vulnerability that precedes stressor Stress any event that triggers the onset of disturbance A diathesis may or may not be biological and a stressor may or may not be environmental Systems Theory Causality Equifinality DIFFERENT causes for SAME disorder Death of parent Loss of job Traumatic Brain Injury Depressio n Depressio n Depressio n Systems Theory Causality Multifinality SAME causal factor but results in DIFFERENT disorders Phobia Earthquake PTSD Depressio n Systems Theory Causality Reciprocal causality causality is bidirectional Parent s behavior Child s behavior Depressed person Depressed person s friends Systems Theory Levels of Analysis Systems theory integrates evidence from biological psychological and social domains of behavior not additive Different paradigms operate at different levels of analysis when explaining human behavior e g neuron individual couple family community culture Biological Perspective Biology CAUSES psychological factors This is misleading Biology can be influenced by psychology Biological causes do not necessarily require biological treatment Today most psychologists view disorders as being caused by multiple factors Understanding Multiple Factors 19 In abnormal psychology we rarely can establish causation Instead we talk about Risk Factors Something that has been shown to prospectively predict a psychopathological outcome Maintenance factors Something that predicts the continuation of symptoms over time among those who are symptomatic Protective Factors Something that reduces the effects of a risk factor Video 20 While watching this video identify any risk maintenance or protective factors that you think affected her substance use problem Multi dimensional Model 1 The interaction between various factors is more important 2 Intervening on one level can influence another On the Menu Today Four psychological paradigms Systems theory Behavior genetics You are responsible for knowing these BROAD concepts Neuron function Four lobes of the brain Biological Paradigm Genotype vs Phenotype Genotype Sum of an organism s genes i e your genetic profile Fixed at birth Phenotype Sum of an organism s observable traits e g weight Influenced by genotype AND environmental experiences GxE feedback loops Biology Genetics Genotype vs Phenotype Biological Paradigm Behavioral Genetics Investigates the genetic vs environmental factors in how we behave Behavioral geneticists consider What is the role of genetics in causing a particular mental disorder What is the role of the environment What is the role of interactions between genes and the environment GxE Biological Paradigm Behavioral Genetic Genes not sufficient to account for development of any psychological disorder Gene environment interactions Reciprocal gene environment model Genes might influence the environment that people seek out Environmental factors may bring out a genetic predisposition The two are not independent Misinterpretation of Behavior Genetics INCORRECT ASSUMPTIONS If there is a genetic influence a disorder is inevitable If a behavior or characteristic is genetically influenced it cannot be changed If there is a genetic influence a gene must be directly responsible for the behavior Biological Paradigm Behavioral Genetics There are three different approaches to studying behavior genetics Family incidence Twin studies Adoption studies studies Biological Paradigm Behavior Genetics Family Incidence Studies Do disorders run in families Researchers identify the index person in a family or a proband Then examine the proportion of family members that suffer from different disorders relative to this person the proband Genetic contribution Shared environment contribution Biological Paradigm Behavior Genetics Hypothetical Data Set Proband family MDD family Schz MDD 30 0 5 Schizophrenia 10 10 No diagnosis 10 0 5 Are members of my family at risk for having a disorder given that I have the disorder Need twin and adoption studies to disentangle the effects of genes and shared environment Twin Studies A Review Twin studies Concordance agreement Depressed Twin A Depressed Twin B Example in a study of 100 twins with depression if 60 of their twins also had depression then the concordance rate is 60 MZ twins have 100 genetic overlap On average DZ twins have 50 genetic overlap like typical siblings Twin Studies Twins Raised Apart MZ twins To account for the fact that MZ twins may be treated more similarly than DZ we study twins that are raised apart Different adoptive families different environment or different treatment Differences in concordance rates b w MZ and DZ twins cannot be attributed to MZ twins having a more similar environment than DZ Behavior Genetics Adoption Studies Compare adopted children with and without family histories of a disorder Compare concordance rates with biological and adoptive parents to see which is higher Can further disentangle genetic and environmental factors Adoption Study Disorder X Proband Adoptees with Disorder X Adoptees without Disorder X biological adoptive parents with parents with Disorder X Disorder X 20 10 10 10


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