UMass Amherst PSYCH 350 - Study Guide Exam 3 (5 pages)

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Study Guide Exam 3



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Study Guide Exam 3

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 350 - Developmental Psychology
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Study Guide for Exam 3 Emotion Different components of emotion physiological responses cognitive motor component etc Transient subjective feelings e g fear elation physiological correlates e g adrenaline heart rate thoughts that accompany feelings e g how to escape or approach desire to take action e g fight or flight ALL at same time Basic emotions and age when they are identifiable early vs late developing how distinguishable are different positive emotions negative emotions etc Smiling 1st month smiling but limited reflexive prenatal 3rd month social smiles encourage care Happiness 2nd month smile when control event 7th month smile more at familiar people Negative emotions in newborns present but can be difficult to differentiate 2nd month expressions for anger sadness distinct from distress pain Stranger anxiety 6 7 months to 2 years reflects strengthening attachment to parents increases over time until about 2 years then fades evolutionarily adaptive Separation anxiety 8 15 months distress from leaving or being left by primary caregiver amount of distress varies by context occurs cross culturally blind children go through same stage but a little later Self conscious emotions develop relatively late require some other cognitive abilities developing a sense of self 1 2 years relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others reactions to us pride guilt shame embarrassment Pride show it when achieve a goal or complete a task by age 3 amount of pride related to difficulty of task Guilt associated with empathy for others remorse regret wanting to make up for their wrongdoing Shame focus on self rather than concern for others may feel like hiding etc Guilt vs Shame depends on whether parents emphasize wrongness of action vs wrongness of child you did a bad thing vs you are a bad boy Embarrassment by 15 24 months some kids embarrassed when made center of attention coy smile Jealousy 5 month old infants tested think develops relatively late Other Conscious Emotions sympathy acknowledge another s emotions express compassion empathy understanding feeling another s emotions Methods for testing expression and understanding of emotions Baby FACS facial action coding system each emotion corresponds to distinct muscle combination expressions presumed to be a window to underlying emotion more difficult to code than adults b c baby fat obscures musculature involved infant s expressions are less differentiated Different theoretical perspectives on emotional development discrete vs undifferentiated emotions functional perspective Discrete Emotions Theory emotions are innate each emotion associated with specific set of bodily and facial reactions emotions are distinct even early in life 6 basic emotions joy anger sadness disgust surprise fear Undifferentiated Emotions Theory early emotions not distinct environment plays role in changing primitive emotions into more complex forms e g wariness fear starts as startle pain reaction by 6 7 months show fear in novel situations e g strangers Emotional regulation the development of self regulatory strategies self soothing etc Self regulation complex process of controlling emotions in order to accomplish one s goals components to regulate 1 Subject feelings 2 Emotion related physiological processes 3 Emotion relate cognitions 4 Emotion related behavior development of self regulation in 3 stages 1 Relying on others self regulation 2 Use of cognitive strategies to control negative emotions 3 Being able to select the right regulating strategy Self regulation beginning 6 months can avert gaze unselectively to reduce distress infants start to self soothe repetitive rubbing stroking of bodies self distract by gazing at neutral or positive objects Self soothing 1 2 years greater control over body attention language brain maturation frontal lobe Emotional regulation controlling our emotions Delay of gratification measurement long term outcomes The Marshmallow Test about 1 3 of the kids ate the candy right away about 1 3 waited 20 mins for the experimenter to return Long term outcomes 10 years later kids who waited had better social academic competence had higher verbal fluency and higher levels of rational thinking were more attentive were better at making and sticking to plans were more able to deal with frustrations 20 years later more socially competent more planful more selfregulated had higher self esteem Temperament definition classifications evidence for where it comes from and cross cultural variations goodness of fit Definition constitutionally based individual differences in emotional motor and attentional reactivity and self regulation temperamental characteristics are seen to demonstrate consistency across situations as well as relative stability over time Classifications Evidence for where it comes from genetic inheritance neural development nutritional deficiencies teratogens prolonged stress maternal insensitivity etc Cross cultural variations New Zealand Longitudinal Study children who were negative impulsive unregulated had more adjustment problems not getting along with others more likely to engage in illegal behaviors more likely to be in trouble with the law at age 21 less happy relationships more unemployment fewer sources of social support Goodness of fit adjustment depends on how one s temperament fits into their particular environment Testing for concept of self development e g mirror task age of achievement etc Mirror Task see when children understand it s them in the mirror have self awareness 18 months know it s them Emotions that rely upon a concept of self self and other conscious emotions Other Conscious Emotions sympathy acknowledge another s emotions express compassion empathy understanding feeling another s emotions Self conscious emotions develop relatively late require some other cognitive abilities developing a sense ofself 1 2 years relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others reactions to us pride guilt shame embarrassment Pride show it when achieve a goal or complete a task by age 3 amount of pride related to difficulty of task Guilt associated with empathy for others remorse regret wanting to make up for their wrongdoing Shame focus on self rather than concern for others may feel like hiding etc Guilt vs Shame depends on whether parents emphasize wrongness of action vs wrongness of child you did a bad thing vs you are a bad boy Embarrassment by 15 24 months some kids embarrassed when made center


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