UMass Amherst PSYCH 350 - Study Guide Exam 2 (4 pages)

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Study Guide Exam 2



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Study Guide Exam 2

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4
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 350 - Developmental Psychology
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Study Guide for Exam 2 Motor Name and describe examples of reflexes that are present at birth particularly ones mentioned in lecture Shared with adults Blinking coughing sneezing etc Survival reflexes breathing sucking eyeblink rooting swallowing pupillary Primitive reflexes moro tonic neck stepping grasping babinski swimming Know examples supporting the role of culture and experience in the achievement delay of motor milestones Kipsigis rural Kenyan babies sit upright 5 weeks earlier walk 3 weeks earlier Western mothers believe crawling is important but 60 of Mali infants never crawl believe exercise promotes motor development Hopi Infants 12 months swaddled for first year almost no delays Romanian orphans deprived of crawling walking up to 2 years significant but reversible delays Describe the developmental progression of reaching and self locomotion Reaching 0 3 months prereaching movements clumsy swiping movements toward general vicinity of objects 3 months successful but poorly controlled appreciates functional goal easier with legs than arms 7 months along with ability to sit independently reaching becomes stable 10 months shows sign of anticipatory reaching and approach is affected by what they intend to do with the object e g throwing vs stuffing Self locomotion 8 months infants become capable of self locomotion for the first time as they begin to crawl 13 months they begin walking independently Dynamic systems theory and supporting examples Development of complex behaviors should be understood in terms of a complex interaction of physical environmental perceptual factors actions can be influenced by bodily mechanisms e g increases in strength posture control balance perception motivation etc Main conclusion from studies with animals e g baby chicks cats Eye beak coordination in baby chicks effects of pecking with and without prism helmet on Active vs passive experience with kittens only active kitten responded normally avoid the visual cliff blinked in response to incoming stimuli lowered feet toward an approaching surface How active vs passive experience affects motor development 2 3 months old active bring child to toy moving towards actively touching passive bring toy to child sitting there waiting for toy babies with active training experience spend more time reaching for things vs babies with passive training Visual flow fields and how they support experience based theories of motor development and the important connection between vision and movement Vision provides valuable information about how we are moving walking at different speeds produces different flow patterns or visual flow fields that we use to help balance e g blind children show delays in walking Learning Memory Definitions and examples for each type of learning ability habituation classical operant statistical observational Habituation desensitization exposure therapy Classical Pavlovian conditioning Operant instrumental learning the relation between own behavior consequential result usually involves positive reinforcement observed by at least 2 months Statistical implicit infants are sensitive to statistically predictive patterns Observational aka social learning direct imitation deferred imitation Know examples of how our nature makes some things easier harder to learn Prepared Learning biological predispositions e g imprinting easy to learn e g harder to learn fear of nice things such as flowers or rabbits predisposed to fear of spiders b c coevolved together Infantile amnesia and possible explanations Remember very little before age of 3 or 4 years old doesn t apply to implicit semantic procedural memory Freudian theory repression retrieval theory encoding fidelity poor information processing myelinization of neural tissue development of hippocampus maturation of the cortex Cognition Object permanence tasks including the A not B task general results at different ages with different methods e g reaching vs looking time The A not B task 9 12 mos tendency to reach to where objects have been found before rather than to where they were last hidden The ability to imitate a model that is no longer present e g imitation happens hours days weeks afterwards 18 24 months The first sign of infants forming enduring mental representations Piagetian learning mechanisms accommodation assimilation equilibrium Assimilation translate incoming information into a previously understood form e g extend a known action pattern to a new object integrating reality into one s own view Accommodation adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experiences e g modifying action pattern to deal with new object change one s view to better match reality Equilibrium learning is a process of balancing the two assimilation accommodation to create a stable understanding Logic and main findings of studies testing infants sensitivity to physical principles e g solidity etc Infants understand of object support relationships know the developmental progression No object permanence until 9 months of age out of sight out of mind Infants numerical abilities A long process e g one knowers for 7 months etc takes 1 to 1 years after mastering the counting routine song not all cultures have created linguistic symbols a count list for numbers e g no concept of precise number exactly 7 on non linguistic tasks Development of counting abilities in children performance on object liquid conservation tasks By age 3 most kids can count to 10 however at the beginning this is mostly a meaningless list What cross cultural studies of number understanding tell us Not all cultures have created linguistic symbols a count list for numbers e g no concept of precise number exactly 7 on non linguistic tasks Different theories of cognitive development e g information processing theory mainly discussed in text Piaget s stage theory core knowledge Piaget s stage theory mind goes through radically different stages especially with psychology sensorimotor stage 1st stage no object permanence until 9 months of age out of sight out of mind Social Cognition Symbols Methods and basic results of tasks measuring infants sensitivity to other s goals intentions preferences rational action 6 month olds respond to a person s intention goal 18 month olds imitate pulling the ends off the action the person intended to do not what the person actually did imitating intentions Cues infants use to detect other living things including task Logic and various versions of the false


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