UMass Amherst PSYCH 350 - Study Guide Exam 1 (4 pages)

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Study Guide Exam 1



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Study Guide Exam 1

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School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 350 - Developmental Psychology
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Psych 350 Study Guide Exam 1 Themes and Foundations Understand the major themes in Child Development and be able to provide examples particularly for Nature Nurture how large a role does each one play Not an either or debate fear can be learned nurture innate ability to learn some fears better than others nature emphasis on genetic or environmental influences complex interaction Continuity discontinuity does development happen gradually or in stages Quantitative gradual pine tree growing qualitative stages butterfly growing from caterpillar Sociocultural influence physical house daycare school urban vs rural economic wealth cultural language values traditions The active child individuals play a role in their own development preference to attend to certain things motivated to learn etc Individual differences resilience possible sources genetic treatment by others subjective reactions to other s treatment What was arguably the first developmental study Describe who involved what it was testing for the method etc Ancient Egypt Psammetichus II was in a debate with another king about which people came first was Egyptian the original language They cut out a shepard s tongue so his kids were born never having heard a language first word was not Egyptian bad study but controlled setting as it could be Know Aristotle s Plato Locke and Rousseau s views of childhood Aristotle all knowledge comes from experiences child rearing should adjust to needs of child Plato born with innate knowledge strict discipline self control across the board Locke tabula rasa a blank slate onto which all experiences can be etched emphasized nurture Rousseau innately good noble savage emphasized nature Darwin s contributions Academically interested in own children development Theory of Evolution Biographical Sketch of an Infant was book of own son s development from birth to 5 years old Understand the logic and several examples of controlled rearing studies Aka deprivation studies behavioral studies with animals kittens born in darkness have different receptors in eyes than kittens not born into darkness behavioral studies with human infants no symbols toys naturalistic studies cataract patients Methods Describe the procedures involved in the scientific method Choose a question to be answered formulate a hypothesis or prediction about the answer develop a method for testing the hypothesis interpret the obtained data draw a conclusion Know the types of important criteria for good measurement the differences between reliability validity as well as the different types Reliability has 2 types test retest same test two different days same answer interrator different people looking at same thing find same conclusion answer Validity experiment measures what it is intended to measure 2 types internal validity effects due to the variables the researcher intentionally manipulated external validity results can generalize beyond the particulars of the research Define three methodological contexts for gathering data and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each Interviews structured interview ask same questions clinical interview questions are adjusted according to the responses Naturalistic observation limitations what caused it Target behavior may not be observed Structured observation identical situation for all kids record behavior enables direct comparisons Recognize and label examples of correlational designs Association between 2 variables positive correlation changes in same direction negative correlation changes in opposite directions correlation coefficient statistical summarizing strength direction of relationship between 2 variables Identify risks and benefits associated with the use of correlational designs Direction of causation problem it is not possible to tell from a correlation which variable is the cause and which is the effect Third variable problem a correlation between two variables may arise from both being influenced by some third variable Recognize and label the essential components of experimental designs including random assignment experimental control groups independent variables and dependent variables Experimental group receives the independent variable Control group does not receive the independent variable Dependent variable is a behavior that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable not the control Independent variable the variable the researchers manipulate during the experiment Random assignment an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment Explain the major advantage and disadvantage of experimental designs Describe a technique for overcoming the major limitation of experimental designs Recognize and label examples of each of the three designs for studying development and the advantages disadvantages of each Cross sectional children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period of time limitation patterns of change Longitudinal same children are studied twice or more over a substantial amount of time limitation selective attrition rehearsal effects Prenatal Development Describe the major structural changes that occur during each of the major periods of prenatal development Period of the zygote conception to 2 weeks basic division implant into uterine wall from fallopian tube major developmental processes cell division cell migration within blastocyst down fallopian tube Period of the embryo 3 to 8 weeks cells develop into specialized types cell differentiation cephalocaudal development area near head develop earlier than area near tail cell death aka apoptosis some cells programmed to die instead of divide because unnecessary for that area of development Period of the fetus 9 weeks to birth some reflexive behaviors 12 weeks most movements present at birth have appeared generate testosterone The four major developmental processes in cell development Cell division cell migration cell differentiation cell death apoptosis Examples of the principle of cephalocaudal development during prenatal development Be familiar with studies that have documented the operation of different sensations in utero Taste 28 weeks mothers with polyhydramnios too much amniotic fluid to get rid of extra injected sac with saccharin sugar colored dye or dye alone then measure amount of dye in mother s urine got fetus to swallow more amniotic fluid could taste the sugar and liked it


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