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BIO 141 1st Edition Lecture 2Outline of Last Lecture II. Developing Relationships: Plants & PeopleIII. Big PictureIV. TimelineOutline of Current Lecture V. Babylon & BeerVI. Non-vascular PlantsCurrent LectureBabylon & BeerPapyrus Ebers- Egypt about 1500 BC.- Records method for making 700 drugs, mostly of plants.Plants vs. Animals- Basic differences: food source and motility.- Autotrophs: make their own food.- Heterotrophs: feed on other creatures. - Plants have rigid cell wall; animals have no cell wall. - Rigid cell wall provides support.- Thin cell membrane allows prey capture. Surface Areas- Plant surfaces: large external surface area to capture resources.- Animals’ surfaces: large internal surface are to digest captured food. - Large surface area allows for more interaction. - Plants use sunlight to make carbon dioxide.- Plants don’t soak up carbon from the soil.Non-vascular PlantsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Seedless Vascular Plants- Vascular tissue disperses with spores.- Spores require water (horsetails, ferns).Fern & Horsetails- Reproduces by spores.Gymnosperms- Cycads: age of dinosaurs (Gingo biloba)- Conifers, adapted to dry environments (pines)- “Naked Seeds” have no fruit or flower around it.Angiosperms- One of the earliest still living flowering plants. - Appeared about 140 million years ago.Pollen- Plant sperm traveling over land.- Protected by tougher outer coat. Coevolution- Reciprocal evolution between 2 species. Mutualism- Mutually beneficial relationship, neither particularly needs each other.- Pollination, seed dispersal, agriculture. - Examples: corn & us, birds & seeds.Pollination- Transfer of plant sperm (in pollen) from one flower to another. - Strategy for coping with immobility: offer nectar as a treat.Seed Dispersal- Moving offspring away from the parent plant.- Strategy for coping with immobility: offer fruit reward to disperse babies. Agriculture- Animals maintain & defend the plants in exchange for food. Principles of Science & Systems- Science is a methodical, logical process for producing knowledge about natural phenomena. - Cumulative body of knowledge produced by scientists.- Process based on careful observation & hypothesis testing. Basic Principle of Science- Empiricism: We can learn about the world by careful observation of empirical (real, observable) phenomena; we can expect to understand fundamental processes and natural laws by observation. - Uniformitarianism: Basic patterns and processes are uniform across time and space; the forces at work today are the same as those that shaped the world in the past, and they will continue to do so in the future.- Parsimony: When 2 plausible explanations are reasonable, the simpler (more parsimonious) on is preferable. This rule is also known as Ockham’s razor, after the English philosopher who proposed it. - Uncertainty: Knowledge changes as new evidence appears, and explanation (theories) change with new evidence. Theories based on current evidence should be tested on additional evidence, with the understanding that new data may disprove the best theories. - Repeatability: Tests and experiments should be repeatable; if the same results cannot bereproduced, then the conclusions are probably incorrect.- Proof is Elusive: We rarely expect science to provide absolute proof that a theory is correct, because new evidence may always undermine out current understanding. - Testable questions: To find out whether a theory is correct, it must be tested; we formulate testable statements (hypotheses) to test theories. Scientific Method- A way to ask & answer scientific questions by making observations & doing


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