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BIO 141 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture II. Recognizing PseudoscienceIII. CultureOutline of Current Lecture IV. CultureV. EvolutionVI. AdaptionsVII. SymbiosisCurrent LectureCulture- Cultures are integrated between people and groups within culture.- Our culture is not homogenous.- Our culture is changing really fast right now. - We are going through a culture shift of gender equality right now.- Women are changing the way they interact with the world. Evolution- Von Liebeg proposed the single factor in shortest supply relative to demand is the criticalfact in species distribution. - How resources are distribution in the world.- What came about it Tolerance Limits. - Could be temperature, abundance of food and water, etc.Habitat and Ecological Niches- Habitat: the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.- Ecological niche: a role played by a species in a biological community.o Set of environmental factors that determine distribution. - Broken down into 2 basic groups:o Generalist: Do a little bit of everything. Humans are generalists, we do everything. These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o Specialist: Are very specific with what they do, like the kind of pollen they eat. Competitive Exclusion- Competitive exclusion principle: states that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche at the same time. - Resource partitioning: species co-exist in a habitat by utilizing different parts of a single resource. Adaptions to Avoid Predation- As predators become more efficient, the prey evolve defenses (thorns, toxic chemicals, etc).- Over time predator and prey evolve in repo since to come another (coevolution).- Species with chemical defenses often evolve warning coloration. o Batesian mimicry: Harmless species mimic the warning coloration of harmful species to gain protection. An example is a insect trying to look like a poisonous monarchy so that predators will second guess themselves and it can fly away.o Mullerian mimicry: 2 harmful species evolve to look alike. Species do this to really multiply their numbers.Symbiosis- Symbiosis: 2 or more species live intimately together with their fates linked. - Mutualism: both organisms benefit from their association. - Commensalism: one species benefits while the other neither benefits nor is harmed. Example: the little bugs in our hair that do no harm to us. - Parasitism: a form of predation; is also sometimes considered a symbiosis because of thedependency of the parasite on its hose. Example: Tapeworm cannot live outside an animal. Keystone Species- Plays a critical role in a biological community that is out of proportion to its abundance. Think of the top corner part of an arch. If it’s taken out, the whole thing falls apart. Sea otters are a keystone species. Evolution- Change in population characteristics over generations. Central Tenets of Evolution- Populations have changed over time into the different species we see today.- Theory of Common Descent: these populations changed from a common ancestor. o Natural selection: gradual process by which heritable biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environment. It is a key mechanism of evolution.o Speciation: formation of new


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