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2.1 Logic Questions2.2 Scientific Statements2.3 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions2.4 Science2.5 Comparative MethodPOLSC 135 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture:Solving the GameOutline of Current Lecture: Study GuideCurrent Lecture:I. Study Guide (Answers highlighted in green)2.1 Logic Questions1. Major premise: If a country has a strong economy, the government will be popular.Minor premise: The government is not popular.Conclusion: Therefore, the country does not have a strong economy.Is this a valid argument?Yes, denies the consequent.2. Major premise: If a country has a strong economy, the government will be popular.Minor premise: The government is not popular.Conclusion: Therefore, the country does not have a strong economy.What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent.b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.3. Major premise: If the president commits a criminal act, then he can be impeached.Minor premise: The president does not commit a criminal act.Conclusion: Therefore, the president cannot be impeached.These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. It is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Is this a valid argument? a. Yes. b. No.4. Major premise: If the president commits a criminal act, then he can be impeached.Minor premise: The president does not commit a criminal act. Conclusion: Therefore, the president cannot be impeached. What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent. b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.5. Major premise: If the president commits a criminal act, then he can be impeached. Minor premise: The president cannot be impeached. Conclusion: Therefore, the president has not committed a criminal act. Is this a valid argument? a. Yes. b. No. 6. Major premise: If the president commits a criminal act, then he can be impeached. Minor premise: The president cannot be impeached. Conclusion: Therefore, the president has not committed a criminal act. What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent. b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.7. Major premise: If a country employs proportional representation electoral rules, it will have manyparties.Minor premise: The country does not employ proportional representation electoral rules.Conclusion: Therefore, the country does not have many parties. Is this a valid argument? a. Yes. b. No.8. Major premise: If a country employs proportional representation electoral rules, it will have manyparties.Minor premise: The country does not employ proportional representation electoral rules.Conclusion: Therefore, the country does not have many parties.What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent. b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.9. Major premise: If theory T is correct, all rich countries will be democracies.Minor premise: All rich countries are democracies. Conclusion: Therefore, theory T is correct. Is this a valid argument? a. Yes. b. No.10. Major premise: If theory T is correct, all rich countries will be democracies. Minor premise: All rich countries are democracies. Conclusion: Therefore, theory T is correct. What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent. b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.11. Consider the following premise: “If theory T is correct, all rich countries will be democracies.” If youwanted to demonstrate that theory T was wrong, what would you have to observe?a. A poor democracy.b. A rich dictatorship.c. A poor dictatorship.d. A rich democracy.12. Major premise: If a country’s electoral rules are permissive, then votes should be translated intoseats in a fairly proportional manner.Minor premise: In the most recent election, votes were not translated into seats in a proportionalmanner.Conclusion: Therefore, the country’s electoral rules are not permissive.Is this a valid argument? a. Yes. b. No. 13. Major premise: If a country’s electoral rules are permissive, then votes should be translated intoseats in a fairly proportional manner.Minor premise: In the most recent election, votes were not translated into seats in a proportionalmanner.Conclusion: Therefore, the country’s electoral rules are not permissive.What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent.b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.14. Major premise: If a country has a participant culture, then democracy in that country will be stable.Minor premise: Democracy in country X is stable.Conclusion: Therefore, country X has a participant culture.Is this a valid argument? a. Yes. b. No.15. Major premise: If a country has a participant culture, then democracy in that country will be stable.Minor premise: Democracy in country X is stable.Conclusion: Therefore, country X has a participant culture.What form (what type of categorical syllogism) does this argument take?a. Affirming the antecedent.b. Denying the antecedent.c. Affirming the consequent.d. Denying the consequent.16. A valid argument isa. One where the conclusion is true.b. One where the conclusion is false.c. One where you do not have to accept the conclusion if you accept the premises.d. One where you have to accept the conclusion if you accept the premises.17. The deductive approach to learning: a. Starts with a set of observations and then tries to ascertain a pattern in the observations that can beused to generate an explanationb. Formulates an expectation about what we ought to observe in light of a particular theory about theworld and then sets out to see if the observations are consistent with that theory.18. If I observe a pattern in political events and decide to generate an explanation for those events, I ampracticing ___________ approach to learning:a. Deductiveb. Inductivec. Deterministicd. Probabilistic19. If I derive some implications from a theory and collect observations to see if they are consistent withthat theory, I am practicing ___________ approach to learning:a. Deductiveb. Inductivec. Deterministicd.


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