UA PHL 223 - Final Exam Study Guide (13 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


The Exam 3 Study guide includes all lecture notes from Lecture 24-36 as well as interpretive questions to assist in your studying. I also listed the required reading at the end of the Guide.

Study Guide
University of Alabama
Phl 223 - Medical Ethics
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PHL 223 Rachels Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 24 36 Lecture 24 November 3 When did Adult to adult liver transplants begin What is Drindee s case in a nutshell What are the statistics on liver donors What does Professor Rachels have to do with Drindee s case Drindees Doctor Thomas Heffron advised her to seek living organ donors o Like a lizards tail livers never grow back Adult to adult liver transplants began in 1997 In 2002 1 in 12 transplants were from living donors Who donates their liver 75 blood relative 13 friend 11 spouse 1 altruist stranger Drindee sent a group email in March 2002 she said that professor Rachels should call her doctor if he wanted information on the situation Professor Rachels was afraid 20 people called the surgeon They looked at one person at a time to determine if they were able to be Drindee s liver donor o Why Expense to the insurance company Lecture 25 November 5 Know the reasons why each donor was eliminated 1 Elimnated a Blood Vessel is out of place b Potential donor 2 friend 2 Eliminated a On a medication b Potential donor 3 friend 3 Eliminated a Drank too much red wine b Doctors are very cautious May 2002 4 Potential donor 4 friend a Eliminated because he suddenly changed his mind b Confidentiality in this case was broken 5 Potential donor 5 friend Professor Rachels a He got an appointment with Dr Hefron at Emory b Dr Hefron told Professor Rachels that he had a 1 chance of dying i Really its more like 1 5 1 in 500 c 15 chance of surgical complications d 100 chance of pain and scarring e The doctor tried to talk him out of it Professor Rachels could change his mind whenever he wanted to f They booted his car while he was at the hospital side note possible test question g On another day the doctors took his blood MRI and administered a psychiatric interview h Everyone he spoke to said they underestimated the pain of the surgery Lecture 26 November 7 What was the outcome of Drindee s case Who did she receive a liver from Know the course of events that happened while Drindee was in and out of the hospital after her first transplant Potential donor 6 Altruist Backed out after 6 weeks Drindee got her transplant on 8 20 02 from a 9 year old boy that died in a car crash Car crash donors usually make for good donors because their organs are normally healthy Successful surgery difficult recovery Emory Hospital They sent letters and called Rachels telling him to pay his hospital bills Drindees insurance paid for all of the bills She wrote about her scars perfect Mercedes benz logo 2004 they told her her disease was back o 1 3 of the time this happens 2005 they took it back 2006 no more overnight hospital stays 2009 needed another transplant o Went into septic shock sometimes Emory no longer does adult to adult liver transplants o Why Because 4 healthy donors died However 400 000 people lived o Risks are too high lawsuits government shutting down January 2010 she got her second liver transplant which was much easier than the first one August 2010 Drindee met the parents of her first donor Never met the second Success story Organ Transplants Every day 21 people die waiting UNOS United Network of Organ Sharing Created Nationwide standards for recipient priority o Sickest first He question this because the sickest may be more likely to die during the operation To get a transplant you must live near a transplant center o There are 250 Centers in the US o Multiple listing getting on the list at more than one center Unfair Outlawed in NYC Lecture 27 November 10 What percent of transplants are cadaveric How can we increase the supply of organ donation Donors are 58 cadaveric 42 living 80 transplants are cadaveric of those will die while waiting Each year 5 000 7 000 people die who donate but don t o o o o o Under 2 of American adults sign organ donor forms Checking the box on your license isn t enough Doctors are cautious about harvesting Its hard to approach grieving families Many people are needlessly dying No one wants to die before they have to o How can we increase the supply Forced donation Freedom vs human life People have insurance know the system and can leave work they get the transplants earlier people waiting Kidney 101933 Liver 15643 Heart 4012 Lung 1625 Kidney and Pancreas 2071 Lecture 28 November 12 Are organs more readily available for the rich How can stem cell research potentially assist in organ production Exploitation of the poor o Danger with living donors only Rich people can get organs if they pay privately and they get taken off of the waiting list Even if you think I shouldn t sell my organs don t I still have the right to Is selling ones organs so stupid that we shouldn t allow it Of course not Stem Cell Research may allow us to clone organs Lecture 29 November 14 What is the God Committee What is the Dialysis Machine Who invented it What are the 3 approaches to assessing Animal Reseach The God Committee o Dialysis cleans blood and returns it to the body Kidney substitute o Dialysis machine invented in 1943 by William Wolfe Dutch o 1960 Belding Scriber a doctor from Seattle invented the Scriber Shunt o 1962 Scribers Hospital conserved 17 dialysis patients o 1961 God committee set up to decide who to accept They limited candidates Don Marquis argument less than 45 could pay Other considerations Employed educated had dependent children acheivements and could potentially help others o Were they playing God Some choice had to be made o The end stage Renial Disease Act 1972 Government funds all dialysis Animal Reseach o How many birds mammals are used for research in the US 25 million yr o Mainly rodents o Animal Core and Use Committees Required since 1986 3 Approaches to assessing animal research Anything goes its just an animal No research is ok animal rights must be protected Research is judged based on harms and benefits Lecture 30 November 17 What are the main groups we discussed in lecture and what are their attached stereotypes What is a speciesist How are the animals that we eat treated in Factory Farms Group Belief African Americans Jews Women Everyone but you Elderly Foreingers Nonhumans Racism Antisemitism Sexism Selfishness Ageism Nationalism Speciesism Most people are speciesists they favor human interests over similar nonhuman interests In other words we would rather kill and torture animals than kill and torture people Factory Farms where livestock is grown to be killed are the equivalent of small sheds 10 billion animals suffer

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