IUB CHEM-C 118 - 10-24 chapter 11 (20 pages)

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10-24 chapter 11



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10-24 chapter 11

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Pages:
20
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 118 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry Ii
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Clicker Question Identify the following type of solid A brittle yellow solid that melts at 113 C neither the solid nor the liquid conducts electricity A Molecular bp is not very high can knock out because of weak IMF B Metallic metals as solids good metal conductors C Ionic liquid conducts electricity D Network E Amorphous broad melting points 11 Solids and Materials 11 5 Types of Solids 11 6 Crystalline Solids 11 7 Network Solids 11 8 Materials Science 11 9 Metals Semiconductors and Insulators 11 10 Silicon and the Chip 11 11 Cement Ceramics and Glass Friday Friday October October 24 24 2014 2014 Read Read Sections Sections 11 7 11 7 11 9 11 9 for for Friday Friday Sections Sections 11 9 11 9 11 11 11 11 for for Monday Monday End End of of Chapter Chapter 11 11 Problems Problems 59 59 61 61 63 63 65 65 72 72 75 75 77 77 84 84 86 86 88 88 90 90 92 92 93 93 108 108 Clicker Question Using the NaCl structure shown how many unit cells share each of the Na ions in the front face of the cell A 2 B 4 C 6 D 8 11 7 Network Solids Some non metals link together in extended networks Graphite Diamond Hard insulator Soft conductor 11 8 Materials Science Study of the relationships between the structure and the chemical and physical properties of materials Four major classes of materials 1 Metals 2 Polymers Natural Synthetic Usually thermal and electrical insulators Materials Science 3 Ceramics Nonmetallic Often clay based Poor thermal conductors Good electrical insulators Often crystalline 4 Composites Combinations of the 3 other materials Properties exceed those of the components 11 9 Metals Metals are Opaque shiny usually crystalline and form alloys Ductile and malleable Mostly nonmagnetic exceptions iron nickel Insoluble in water and other common solvents Silvery white fairly non color They have High electrical conductivity High thermal conductivity Metals Metal Hfus and mp vary widely Hfus Hg Ga Na Li Al U Fe Ti Cr W Hfus kJ mol 2 3 7 5 2 6 3 0 10 7 12 6 13 8 20 9 16 9 35 2 mp C 38 8 29 8 97 9 180 5 660 4 1132 1 1535 0 1660 1 1857 0 3410 1 Electrons in Metals Bonding Metallic bonding Nondirectional attraction between M and a sea of mobile valence e Valence e spread throughout the M lattice holding the M ions together An electric field can pull valence e to a electrode M can move without destroying M e attractions for ductility and malleability not true for other solids Band Theory Band Theory Every atom has E levels s p d As multiple atoms come together orbitals interact Number of atoms e in atoms e in lattice energy levels 1 2 3 12 many empty filled Electrons in Metals Semiconductors Insulators The valence band VB contains the valence e Number of atoms e in atoms e in lattice energy levels 1 2 Higher E orbitals form the conduction band CB In a metal the valence and conduction band overlap e can move freely between bands 3 12 many empty filled Electrons in Metals Semiconductors Insulators Metal Bands overlap Lots of open levels Insulator Large band gap e cannot jump the gap Semiconductor Narrow band gap Some e can jump the gap band gap conductor insulator semi conductor Superconductors Resistance Metals are better conductors at low T c typi al t e al m er p u s c c to u d on r critical T 0 Tc Temperature K Superconductors have zero resistance at some low T Superconductors Several metals are superconductors at low T Some alloys are better Metal Tc K Gallium 1 10 Aluminum 1 15 Tin 3 72 Mercury 4 15 Lanthanum 4 9 Lead 7 2 Nb3Sn alloy 18 1 LaBa2Cu3Ox 35 YBa2Cu3O7 He boils at 4 2 K Many He cooled magnets use Nb alloys 1st ceramic superconductor 1986 N2 boils at 77 K 90 Hg0 8Tl0 2Ba2Ca2Cu3O8 23 Y123 found 4 months later 138 Highest Tc so far Superconductors Why the excitement Better magnets Loss free electrical transmission Maglev Shanghai maglev train Levitation of a magnet above a superconductor Clicker Question Identify the following type of solid A soft silvery solid that melts at 40 C both the solid and the liquid conduct electricity A Molecular B Metallic C Ionic solid don t conduct electricity D Network E Amorphous metals Silicon the Chip Controlled addition of another element Silicon the Chip A p n junction Charge carriers holes p type and e n type Silicon the Chip Smart chips Can we diagnose a disease with a single chip Example Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE May provide in situ disease diagnosis and observation in real time Nature Medcine 2012 18 9 1434 Silicon the Chip nn pp A photovoltaic cell


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