IUB CHEM-C 118 - 11-10 chapter 22 (21 pages)

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11-10 chapter 22



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11-10 chapter 22

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Pages:
21
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 118 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry Ii
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Clicker Question A coordination compound is one that a Is formed between alkali metals or alkaline earths and halogens b Is formed from a transition metal ligands and enough counter ions to produce a neutral compound c Aids in bannce and is found at enhanced levels in elite gymnasts and dancers d Results from a neutralization reaction e Is formed when elements of the third period react with halogens 22 Coordination Chemistry 22 1 Properties of the Transition Elements 22 2 Iron and Steel The Use of Pyrometallurgy 22 3 Copper A Coinage Metal 22 4 Silver and Gold The Other Coinage Metals 22 5 Chromium 22 6 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 22 7 Crystal Field Theory Friday Friday October October 31 31 2014 2014 Read Read Section Section 22 1 22 1 for for Friday Friday Sections Sections 22 2 22 2 22 3 22 3 and and 22 4 22 4 Monday Monday End End of of Chapter Chapter 22 22 Problems Problems 8 8 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 22 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 32 34 34 36 36 38 38 40 40 42 42 44 44 46 46 48 48 50 50 52 52 54 54 56 56 58 58 60 60 62 62 63 63 65 65 67 67 73 73 75 75 77 77 78 78 79 79 83 83 85 85 91 91 Common Ligands to Know Monodentate ligands H Cl H HH Water Ammonia Chloride ion 2 O O Carbonate ion H2N O O O NH2 O H C O Cyanide ion Carbon monoxide Hydroxide ion C C 2 O Oxalate ion ox N N H2C CH2 Ethylenediamine en Hexadentate ligand Bidentate ligands O C C N Ortho phenanthroline phen O H N O C CH2 4 O O CH2 C O N CH2 CH2 N CH2 C O O C CH2 O O Ethylenediaminetetraacetate ion EDTA Chelating Ligands Chelating ligands grab metal ions They are polydentate ligands donating 2 e pairs EDTA is hexadentate 6 coordinate covalent bonds form 2 N atoms blue spheres 4 O atoms red spheres EDTA encapsulates insoluble metal ions making them soluble M Coordination Number Coordination number number of coordinate covalent bonds between a metal ion and its ligands Coordination Number 2 K AuCl2 Examples 4 K2 NiCl4 Pt NH3 4 One bond6 ligands Co NH3 6 Cl3 Ag NH3 2 2 Fe H2O 6 2 monodentate CN 1 Two bond ligands bidentate CN 2 Denticity of a ligand Co en 3 3 Coordination Number A Co3 coordination complex contains two ethylenediamine en ligands and two chloride ligands Determine the coordination number for this complex Co en 2Cl2 1 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 Geometry of Coordination Complexes n ML2 complexes are linear Ag NH3 2 Cl Cu Cl n ML 6 complexes are octahedral Co NH3 6 3 Geometry of Coordination Complexes n ML4 complexes are square planar or tetrahedral Square Planar Pt NH3 4 2 Tetrahedral Zn NH3 4 2 Isomerism in Coordination Complexes Linkage isomerism Some ligands can bind in multiple ways pentaamminethiocyanatocobalt III ion pentaammineisothiocyanatocobalt III ion M SCN M NCS Isomerism in Coordination Complexes Geometric isomerism square planar octahedral complexes cis adjacent trans opposite sides cis Pt NH3 2Cl2 trans Pt NH3 2Cl2 cis diamminedichloroplatinum II trans diamminedichloroplatinum II The isomers differ in solubility color m p and reactivity The cis isomer is an anticancer agent cisplatin The trans isomer is inactive Isomerism in Coordination Complexes An octahedral complex example violet cis adjacent green trans opposite sides cis Co NH3 4Cl2 trans Co NH3 4Cl2 cis tetraamminedichlorocobalt III trans tetraamminedichlorocobalt III ion ion Isomerism in Coordination Complexes Geometric isomerism octahedral complexes facial fac Forms a face of the octahedron meridinal mer Connect the meridian of the octahedron fac Co NH3 3Cl3 mer Co NH3 3Cl3 fac triamminetrichlorocobalt III mer triamminetrichlorocobalt III Isomerism in Coordination Complexes Which of the following is the correct structure for potassium cis dibromodichloroplatinate II 1 3 2 4 Isomerism in Coordination Complexes Optical isomerism also occurs enantiomers Enantiomers Non superimposable mirror images Cr en 2Cl2 dichlorobis ethylenediamine chromium III ion Optical Isomerism Examples Coordination Compounds Life 2 Heme carries Fe2 in myoglobin and hemoglobin 1 heme myoglobin and 4 hemes hemoglobin Coordination Compounds Life Vitamin B12 6 coord Co ion bound to a heme ligand Only known dietary use of cobalt but it is absolutely essential Finding the Metal d electron count Take into account the charges of any counter ions Determine which ligands are neutral and which are charged anionic to determine ox state d count valance electrons oxidation state NOT dependent on isomers Crystal Field Theory Orbital view pay attention to axis labels Crystal Field Theory e pairs on the ligands create an electrostatic field Crystal Field Theory This field interacts with the metal ion d orbitals In an octahedral complex CNCN Fe 2 3dz 2 CNCN CNCN 3dyz 3dxy 3dxz 3dx2 y 2 Along the x y z axes Between axes Ligands lie along the x y and z axes The two types of d orbitals have different E in this field


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