IUB CHEM-C 118 - 11-5 chapter 22 (16 pages)

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11-5 chapter 22



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11-5 chapter 22

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Pages:
16
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 118 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry Ii
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22 Coordination Chemistry 22 1 Properties of the Transition Elements 22 2 Iron and Steel The Use of Pyrometallurgy 22 3 Copper A Coinage Metal 22 4 Silver and Gold The Other Coinage Metals 22 5 Chromium 22 6 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 22 7 Crystal Field Theory Friday Friday October October 31 31 2014 2014 Read Read Section Section 22 1 22 1 for for Friday Friday Sections Sections 22 2 22 2 22 3 22 3 and and 22 4 22 4 Monday Monday End End of of Chapter Chapter 22 22 Problems Problems 8 8 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 22 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 32 34 34 36 36 38 38 40 40 42 42 44 44 46 46 48 48 50 50 52 52 54 54 56 56 58 58 60 60 62 62 63 63 65 65 67 67 73 73 75 75 77 77 78 78 79 79 83 83 85 85 91 91 Bronze Brass The Bronze age began 3800 BC in the Middle East Bronze Cu Sn 7 10 alloy Harder than Cu Copper and bronze slowly turn green when exposed to air 2 Cu s O2 g CO2 g H2O Cu2 OH 2CO3 s copper II hydroxycarbonate Brass Cu Zn 20 45 alloy Brass is easy to cast and stamp widely used in pipes valves and fittings Silver Gold Other Coinage Metals Silver and Gold occur in their elemental form in nature Gold is extremely dense 19 3g ml or possibly 19 3 g cm3 this allowed for panning during the gold rush Gold Au is the most malleable metal Thin gold leaf is used to cover structures Silver is the best metallic conductor Silver Gold Other Coinage Metals Both are soft use alloys to increase strength Sterling silver 92 5 Ag 7 5 Cu Pure gold 24 carats 18 carat gold 75 Au 25 Cu 14 carat gold 58 Au 42 Cu Gold will not react with O2 even at high T pure gold Silver will slowly form Ag2O at high T Lack of oxidation is explained by reduction potentials Silver Gold Other Coinage Metals Silver reacts with nitric acid 3 Ag s 4 H aq NO3 aq 3 Ag aq NO g 2 H2O Gold dissolves in aqua regia 3 1 conc HCl HNO3 Au s 6 H aq 3 NO3 aq 4 Cl aq AuCl4 aq 3 NO2 g 3 H2O In 1940 the Nazis had declared no gold shall leave Germany however two Nobel laureates had sent their medals to Denmark for protection Silver Gold Other Coinage Metals Silver reacts with nitric acid 3 Ag s 4 H aq NO3 aq 3 Ag aq NO g 2 H2O In the above reaction acts as the oxidizing agent and acts as the reducing agent 1 H and NO32 Ag and NO33 NO3 and H 4 NO3 and Ag Silver Gold Other Coinage Metals Argentite Ag2S is the principal silver ore Ag is isolated by cyanide extraction Ag2S s 4 CN aq 2 Ag CN 2 aq S2 aq 2 Ag CN 2 aq Zn s 2 Ag s Zn CN 42 aq Gold is extracted from crushed rock in a similar way 4Au s 8CN aq O2 g 2H2O 4Au CN 2 aq 4OH2 Au CN 2 aq Zn s 2 Au s Zn CN 42 aq Chromium Chromium is hard brittle and very corrosion resistant Used in stainless steel and chrome plating of steel Chromite FeCr2O4 is the principal ore 4 FeCr2O4 s 8 CaO s 8 Na2CO3 s 7 O2 g 8 Na2CrO4 s 2 Fe2O3 s 8 CaCO3 s Water dissolves Na2CrO4 from the other insoluble species 2 CrO42 aq 3 SO2 g 3 H2O Cr2O3 s 3 SO42 aq 2 H3O aq Chromium Isolated by reduction with Al Cr2O3 s 2 Al s 2 Cr s Al2O3 s Chromium has 2 common oxidation states 3 and 6 2 4 5 also occur but are uncommon violet Cr NO3 3 Cr III green CrCl3 Cr III yellow CrO42 Cr VI orange Cr2O72 Cr VI Chromium CrO42 and Cr2O72 exist in pH dependent equilibrium 2H3O aq 2CrO42 aq yellow Cr2O72 aq 3H2O K 4 x 1014 orange Dichromate ions in acid solution are oxidizing agents They can oxidize alcohols and aldehydes 8 H3O Cr2O72 3 CH3CHO 2 Cr3 3 CH3COOH 12 H2O Chromium CrO42 and Cr2O72 exist in pH dependent equilibrium 2H3O aq 2CrO42 aq yellow Cr2O72 aq 3H2O K 4 x 1014 orange In base and neutral solution the is favored 1 Dichromate ion Cr2O722 Chromate ion CrO42more acid push toward product In a base neutral solution remove reactant so shift reactant Toward that direction Adding Coordinate Covalent Bonds In a coordinate covalent bond One atom contributes both e forming the bond Lewis acids and bases Formed by atoms with lone pairs N S P Lewis base NH3 can donate both electrons with boron BH3 Metal ions form coordinate covalent bonds empty d orbitals accept lone pairs Molecules or ions that bind to a metal ion are called ligands Coordinate Covalent Bonds An ion where ligands are bound to a central metal is a complex ion Ni H2O 6 2 has 6 H2O bound to Ni2 Ni Cl 4 2 has 4 Cl bound to Ni2 Writing complex ions metal ligand formula ion charge Coordinate Covalent Bonds What is the correct formula for the following complex 1 Fe NH3 2 OH 2Cl2 2 2 Fe NH3 2 OH 2Cl2 23 Fe NH3 OH Cl 2 Coordinate Covalent Bonds Coordination compounds are often brightly colored Ni H2O 6 NO3 2 Ni NH3 6 Cl2 Ni NH3 6 Cl2 contains the complex ion Ni NH3 6 2 and 2 Clcounter ions to balance the charge Counter ions are not always needed cisplatin Pt NH3 2Cl2 Coordinate Covalent Bonds What is the oxidation state of iron in the following complex K3 Fe OH 6 1 2 3 4 Fe0 Fe Fe2 Fe3


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