IUB CHEM-C 118 - 10-27 chapter 11 (18 pages)

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10-27 chapter 11



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10-27 chapter 11

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Pages:
18
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 118 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry Ii
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Clicker Question A composite material is one which A Is either plastic or brittle and does not conduct heat or electricity B Has a shiny surface and is a good conductor of heat or electrcity C Occurs naturally and can be purified to use in manufacturing alloys D Is brittle nonmetallic resistant to heat and chemically unreactive E Combines properties of metals polymers and ceramic to performed a special function 11 Solids and Materials 11 5 Types of Solids 11 6 Crystalline Solids 11 7 Network Solids 11 8 Materials Science 11 9 Metals Semiconductors and Insulators 11 10 Silicon and the Chip 11 11 Cement Ceramics and Glass Monday Monday October October 27 27 2014 2014 Read Read Sections Sections 11 10 11 10 and and 11 11 11 11 for for Monday Monday End End of of Chapter Chapter 11 11 Problems Problems 59 59 61 61 63 63 65 65 72 72 75 75 77 77 84 84 86 86 88 88 90 90 92 92 93 93 108 108 Band Gaps in Semiconductors Control of the band gap size determines how much energy is needed to turn on a semiconductor Silicon the Chip Controlled addition of another element Silicon the Chip Ultra pure Si is prepared by zone refining Impurities are more soluble in Si than in Si s A molten zone is moved through a sample Impurities move along in the liquefied portion Silicon the Chip A p n junction Charge carriers holes p type and e n type Silicon the Chip Smart chips Can we diagnose a disease with a single chip Example Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE May provide in situ disease diagnosis and observation in real time Nature Medcine 2012 18 9 1434 Photovoltaic Cells Based on photosynthesis CO2 e Acceptor H2O e Donor C H2O hv e chlorophyll O2 H2O CO2 solar energy C H2O O2 Silicon the Chip nn pp A photovoltaic cell Solar to Electrical Energy Conversion p Energy CB n CB nn pp VB VB Clicker What must silicon be doped with to make a p type semiconductor 1 P 2 As 3 B needs to have a lower of valence electrons than silicon 4 Te Quantum Dots Nanocrystals made out of semiconducting materials Exhibit properties between bulk semi conductors and individual molecules Band gap is inversely related to size Applications of Quantum Dots Biology Organic dyes are traditionally used Quantum dots have begun to fill in the deficiencies of organic dyes Applications of Quantum Dots Biology Tumor targeting Potential toxic side effects Photovoltaic cells Cheaper to manufacture Can excite more than 1 electron per photon Cement Ceramics Glasses Amorphous solids Cement Tiny metal oxide particles CaO SiO2 Al2O3 SiO2 They crystallize irregularly when hydrated Made by heating limestone sand clay and iron oxide High compressive but low tensile strength Concrete a mix of cement sand and gravel Cement Ceramics Glasses Ceramics made from clay or other natural earths Silicate ceramics from clays China clay kaolin is white and used for table china Red clay contains Fe Oxide ceramics from metal oxides at high P and T Used in high T applications Incredibly good insulator Nonoxide ceramics include Si3N2 SiC and BN High P T preparation all amorphous hard and brittle Cement Ceramics Glasses Glasses optically transparent amorphous solids Simplest vitreous silica SiO2 in a 3d lattice No long range order mp around 1800 C ultimately over a large range b c of amorphous Soda lime glass a SiO2 Na2O CaO and MgO mix More inert and easier to make mp 800 C Cement Ceramics Glasses Glass can be colored Substance Calcium fluoride Cobalt II oxide Copper I oxide Gold finely divided Iron II compounds Iron III compounds Manganese IV oxide Tin IV oxide Uranium compounds Color Milky white Blue Red green blue Red purple blue Green Yellow Violet Opaque Yellow green


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