IUB CHEM-C 118 - 10-31 chapter 22 (16 pages)

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10-31 chapter 22



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10-31 chapter 22

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Pages:
16
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 118 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry Ii
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22 Coordination Chemistry 22 1 Properties of the Transition Elements 22 2 Iron and Steel The Use of Pyrometallurgy 22 3 Copper A Coinage Metal 22 4 Silver and Gold The Other Coinage Metals 22 5 Chromium 22 6 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 22 7 Crystal Field Theory Friday Friday October October 31 31 2014 2014 Read Read Section Section 22 1 22 1 for for Friday Friday Sections Sections 22 2 22 2 22 3 22 3 and and 22 4 22 4 Monday Monday End End of of Chapter Chapter 22 22 Problems Problems 8 8 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 22 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 32 34 34 36 36 38 38 40 40 42 42 44 44 46 46 48 48 50 50 52 52 54 54 56 56 58 58 60 60 62 62 63 63 65 65 67 67 73 73 75 75 77 77 78 78 79 79 83 83 85 85 91 91 Properties of Transition Elements Similar to main group metals conduct ductile malleable Differences Elemental forms are silvery white or bluish except Au and Cu Overall higher m p and b p W tungston called wolfren 3410 C Higher densities Os 22 6 g mL Ir 22 7 g mL Properties of Transition Elements Many form brightly colored compounds and complex ions Co NO3 2 K2Cr2O7 K2CrO4 NiCl2 CuSO4 KMnO4 Have multiple common oxidation states Some are paramagnetic unpaired electrons A few are ferromagnetic a bunch of unpaired electrons and line them up magnet on fridge Electron Configurations Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn 3d1 4s2 3d2 4s2 3d3 4s2 3d5 4s1 3d5 4s2 3d6 4s2 3d7 4s2 3d8 4s2 3d10 4s1 3d10 4s2 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd 4d1 5s2 4d2 5s2 4d3 5s2 4d5 5s1 4d5 5s2 4d6 5s2 4d7 5s2 4d85s2 4d10 5s1 4d10 5s2 La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt 5d1 6s2 Au Hg 4f14 5d2 6s2 4f14 5d3 6s2 4f14 5d5 6s1 4f14 5d5 6s2 4f14 5d6 6s2 4f14 5d7 6s2 4f14 5d8 6s2 4f14 5d10 6s1 4f14 5d10 6s2 Lanthanides intervene 4f subshell Non standard configuration is more stable filled and filled d sublevels are favored Electron Configurations Sc 3d 4s 4p unpaired e1 Ti 2 V 3 Cr 6 Mn 5 Fe 4 Co 3 Ni 2 Cu 1 Zn 0 Electron Configurations Ion formation Fe Fe2 Fe3 V V2 V4 Measured moments confirm that ns are lost first Practicing Electron Configurations What are the electron configurations for Pt2 and Co3 Pt2 Xe 4f145d8 Co3 Ar 3d6 How many unpaired electrons are in Cr3 3 unpaired electrons Pay attention to the ions vs elements elements are the ones with exceptions Electron Configurations Gouy Balance Paramagnetic ions have a magnetic moment More unpaired e higher moment Electron Configurations Fe3 Fe 3d64s2 If lost from d 3d3 If lost from s 3d5 Experimental 5 92 5 Unpaired electrons Magnetic moments are slightly higher than the number of unpaired electrons Trends in Atomic Radii Across a period Atomic Atomicradii radii pm pm Add an e add a p Larger nuclear charges pull the e shells in more tightly doubly occupied d orbitals swell e e repulsion Down a group 4th period atoms 5th added shell 6th Ln contraction Lananide contraction really dropping radius significantly Trends in Atomic Radii Explained by the Lanthanide Contraction 14 f block elements hidden between La and Hf 14 added p counteract the growth from the extra shell higher Zeff pulls shells tighter The 5th and 6th row transition metals have Almost equal size Very similar chemical properties Oxidation States Most have multiple oxidation states Exceptions Scandium group elements are all 3 Zn and Cd 2 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 More common Less common Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Oxidation States Transition metal ion properties High ox state compounds are strong oxidizing agents Cr2O72 14 H3O 6 e 2 Cr3 21 H2O Within the same element Low ox states are ionic high ox states are covalent MnCl2 solid contains Mn2 and Cl ions MnO4 contains covalent Mn O bonds Coordination Chemistry Which transition metal has the electron configuration Ar 3d3 in the 4 oxidation state Which transition metal has the electron configuration Kr 4d8 in the 2 oxidation state Oxidation States Transition metal ion properties Ions with a partially filled d subshell make good catalysts Zn2 Pt2 Pt0 Oxidation States Biological Catalysts Iron can exist as Fe2 or Fe3 and acts as an electron shuttle Iron sulfur clusters


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