IUB CHEM-C 118 - 11-3 chapter 22 (19 pages)

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11-3 chapter 22



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11-3 chapter 22

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Pages:
19
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Chem-C 118 - Principles of Chemistry and Biochemistry Ii
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Coordination Chemistry Which transition metal has the electron configuration Ar 3d3 in the 4 oxidation state 1 2 3 4 Cr4 Mn4 Fe4 Co4 22 Coordination Chemistry 22 1 Properties of the Transition Elements 22 2 Iron and Steel The Use of Pyrometallurgy 22 3 Copper A Coinage Metal 22 4 Silver and Gold The Other Coinage Metals 22 5 Chromium 22 6 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 22 7 Crystal Field Theory Monday Monday November November 3 3 2014 2014 Read Read Section Section 22 2 22 2 and and 22 3 22 3 for for Monday Monday Sections Sections 22 4 22 4 22 5 22 5 and and 22 6 22 6 for for Wednesday Wednesday End End of of Chapter Chapter 22 22 Problems Problems 8 8 14 14 16 16 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 22 26 26 28 28 30 30 32 32 34 34 36 36 38 38 40 40 42 42 44 44 46 46 48 48 50 50 52 52 54 54 56 56 58 58 60 60 62 62 63 63 65 65 67 67 73 73 75 75 77 77 78 78 79 79 83 83 85 85 91 91 Oxidation States Transition metal ion properties High ox state compounds are strong oxidizing agents Cr2O72 14 H3O 6 e 2 Cr3 21 H2O Within the same element Low ox states are ionic high ox states are covalent MnCl2 solid contains Mn2 and Cl ions MnO4 contains covalent Mn O bonds Oxidation States Transition metal ion properties Ions with a partially filled d subshell make good catalysts Zn2 Pt2 Pt0 Oxidation States Biological Catalysts Iron can exist as Fe2 or Fe3 and acts as an electron shuttle Iron sulfur clusters Iron Steel Pyrometallurgy Iron The most abundant transition metal Soft and silvery white In air 4 Fe2 aq O2 g 4 H g 4 Fe3 aq 2 H2O l Rust 2 Fe3 aq 4 H2O l Fe2O3 H2O s 6 H aq Principal ores hematite Fe2O3 magnetite Fe3O4 Pyrometallurgy use high temperature to extract pure metal from its ores Iron Steel Pyrometallurgy 2 C s O2 g 2 CO g exothermic Fe2O3 s 3 CO g 2 Fe s 3 CO2 g Silica impurities are removed by limestone CaCO3 s CaO s CO2 g CaO s SiO2 s CaSiO3 Slag liquid silicates The furnace makes pig iron Pig iron is brittle because of impurities Blast Furnace Iron Steel Pyrometallurgy Cast iron pig iron poured into molds The basic oxygen process makes steel Pure O2 is blown through pig iron to remove impurities limit C 1 3 Gas forms C CO CO2 S SO2 Occurs at 1900 C Steel composition is varied by adding other elements to get desired properties Iron Steel Name Composition Properties Uses Carbon steel 1 3 C 98 7 Fe Hard Sheet steel tools Manganese 10 18 Mn 90 82 FeHard resistant to Railroad rails safes steel 0 5 C wear armor plate Stainless 14 18 Cr 7 9 Ni steel 79 73 Fe 0 2 C Resistant to corrosion Nickel steel 2 4 Ni 98 96 Fe 0 5 C resistant to corrosion Cutlery instruments Hard elastic Drive shafts gears cables Duriron 12 15 Si 88 85 Fe Resistant to 0 85 C corrosion by acids Pipes High speed 14 20 W 86 80 Fe Retains temper steel 0 5 C when hot tools High speed cutting Iron Steel Too much carbon in steel forms cementite Fe3C or graphite crystals Cementite makes steel hard and brittle Rapid cooling of hot steel quenching traps carbon as cementite Slow cooling favors graphite formation and a softer more ductile material Tempering reheating and rapidly cooling iron adjusts The graphite cementite ratio The hardness Iron Steel The amount of cementite produced may be decreased by lowering the temperature of the blast furnace Is the formation of cementite exothermic or endothermic 1 Exothermic 2 Endothermic if I lower the temperature I favor reactants need to draw heat exothermic process from environment to make products cementite The Metallurgy of Copper Copper metal is sometimes found in nature 10 000 years ago natural copper was used to make coins jewelry tools and weapons Today the demand for copper requires extraction from ores Major ores Chalcocite Cu2S and chalcopyrite CuFeS2 are found mixed with FeS2 and FeS Roasting 3 FeS2 s 8 O2 g 2 CuFeS2 s O2 g heat Fe 3 heat O4 s 6 SiO2 g Cu2S s 2 FeS s SO2 g Native copper The Metallurgy of Copper Combining Fe3O4 with O2 and SiO2 forms iron slag Open pit copper mine in Bingham Canyon O2 and SiO2 produce iron silicate slag and Cu2S Air is blown through the Cu2S 2 Cu2S 3 O2 g 2 Cu2O Cu2S 2 Cu2O 2 SO2 g 6 Cu SO2 g 96 99 5 pure blister copper The Metallurgy of Copper Redox Returns The Metallurgy of Copper The voltage is controlled so that Cu Zn Pb Fe dissolve from the anode Cu2 is reduced to Cu 99 9 pure plates on the cathode All other metal ions stay in solution As the anode dissolves Au Ag and Pt drop out and form sludge Reduction Half Reaction E V Au aq e Au s 1 68 Ag aq e Ag s 0 799 Cu2 aq 2e Cu s 0 337 Fe2 aq 2e Fe s 0 44 Pb2 aq 2e Pb s 0 126 Zn2 aq 2e Zn s 0 763 Au Ag and Pt often pay for the refining Copper A Coinage Metal Copper is used in all U S coins 1 coin Until 1982 pure copper Currently zinc plated with copper 97 5 Zn 2 5 Cu The nickel is a uniform copper 75 nickel 25 alloy Other silver coins are a copper core covered with copper nickel alloy The Sacagawea dollar is copper covered with a Mn Cu Zn alloy Copper Copper dissolves in nitric acid but few other acids Concentrated HNO3 brown Cu s 2 NO3 aq 4 H aq Cu2 aq 2 NO2 g 2 H2O Cu HNO3 aq conc Brown NO2 fumes green Cu NO3 2 aq CuSO4 5H2O blue vitriol is widely used fungicide algicide Aqueous solutions contain the blue Cu H2O 6 2 complex Copper The Cu I ion is unstable in water It disproportionates DON T FORGET THIS 2 Cu aq Cu s Cu2 aq E cell 0 37 V CuI Cu0 CuII In basic solution Cu2 can be reduced to insoluble Cu2O Used to test for glucose in urine 2 Cu2 RCHO 5 OH Cu2O RCOO 3 H2O blue reducing sugar brick red When copper reacts with O2 at High T 1000 C black CuO forms Low T 1000 C red Cu2O forms Cu2O CuO Bronze Brass The Bronze age began 3800 BC in the Middle East Bronze Cu Sn 7 10 alloy Harder than Cu Copper and bronze slowly turn green when exposed to air 2 Cu s O2 g CO2 g H2O Cu2 OH 2CO3 s copper II hydroxycarbonate Brass Cu Zn 20 45 alloy Brass is easy to cast and stamp widely used in pipes valves and fittings


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