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TAMU HIST 106 - HIST 106 7_11_13

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HIST 1067/11/13- Industrial Society 1870s – 1900so The machine culture Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia 1876 Over 13 acres focusing on present with machines First taste of root beer and ate banana, saw first bicycle Key focus was machinery, Alexander Bell, Thomas Jefferson Corliss Engine- Allowed power without water and symbol of industrializationo Industrial development US becomes Global Player In 1800’s lagged behind other industrial nations By 1900 well exceeds output of combined industrialized nations Mining, Communications, Technology Growth- Abundant resources: coal, iron, timber, petroleum- Abundant labor: immigrants and US familieso 8 million 1870-1880, 15 million 1890-1914 immigrants- Expanded Markets- US had largest free trade market in world- Tariff barriers protect US market from outside resources Investors provide large capital for production and businesses Technology will improve productivity Government give money to businessmen to open business and buy land- Reluctant to regulate industrialization- Gives stability to economy Entrepreneurs Captain of Industry or Robber Barons- Organize and start new businesses- Dealt with quantities unheard of in America before Growth was concentrated in north and east- West supplied raw materials- South was destroyed by Civil Waro An empire on rails Revolution of transportation and communication- Steel ship that halves time to cross ocean- Railroad was truly important plus Bessemer steel Advantages of Railroad- Allow access to new places waterways do not- Greater speed, safety and comfort- Large traffic, year-round service- Links cities and end isolation of small towns- Foster greater interdependence Connecting supply and Demand Island Communities Two hallmarks of 20th century are mass production and consumption Ripple Effects- Point toward a new kind of business development, first big business- Will require scale of organization unheard of prior Middle management, Time Zones- Introduction of middle managers for daily affairs- Needed time table for trains and passengers, created time zones- England created the time zones- US and Canada adopted for railways in November 1883- Standard Time Act of 1918 adopted as US law Walt Whitman- Wrote poems about trains- Children waved at trains and thought of adventures along railway Tangled Mess- Localized tracks prior to civil war, only cared about local market- After war railroads start to become integrated Trunk Lines- In north east: Baltimore and Ohio, Erie, New York Central and Pennsylvania, linking major cities- Later south had 5 systems Improvements- Automatic couplers 1868, Airbrakes 1869, Refrigerated Cars 1875- Passenger miles went from 5 billion in 1870 to 16 billion in 1900 Transcontinental was dream- Leland Stanford, Thomas Durant – Union Pacific, Central Pacific- Hammered in golden spike where railways joined- Helped “knit the whole world together”- Met in Promontory, Utah in 1889 Enormous Symbolism- Seemed like anything was possiblem Overgrowth- Overbuilding, lines would parallel each other- Jay Gould would force others to buy his lines out- Fights over passage and business along rails- Rate wars developed, tried sharing: no cooperation- Larger companies began taking over small competitors- Panic of 1893: many railways collapse JP Morgan - banker- Becomes most powerful figure in American Finance- 1885 Rate War New York Central and Pennsylvaniao Acted as moderator and made $1 million fee for lunch- “Morganization” post 1893o Fixed costs in debt ruthlessly cuto Rates stabilizedo Hand-picked trustees to control businesseso 7 giant systems and national transportation networko An industrial empire Steel- Harder and more durable than iron- Brought about changes in architecture, manufacturing and agriculture- Better plow, machinery, ships Sir Henry Bessemer- Experiment with new metals- Created spinning bullets- Hailed new Bessemer steel as miracle, it was cheap Andrew Carnegie 1872- From Scotland, came to US at 13 in 1848- Met Bessemer and was expert on promotion and sales- Invests in steel mill in pitsburg- Created vertical integrationo Company owns resources and all parts of productiono Carnegie Steel owned steel from the mine to factory- Didn’t recruit outside, but promoted current workers- Instituted university to teach steel methods to younger generations- Becomes richest man in US John D. Rockefeller- Son of conman who deserts family and single mother- Requires precision and order, he brings it to business deals- Oil is discovered in Pennsylvania and refineries are popping up- He invest in oil in 1862, by 1870 merges interests in Standard Oil- Competitive, sets to stamp out all oil companies- Creates Horizontal integrationo Buy out companies in like industries, consolidates companieso This leads to a monopoly of Oilo 1872 less than 6 weeks buys out 22/26 rival companieso By 1879 Standard Oil controls 90-95% of Oil in US- Controls companies using “Trusts”o 9 trustees are given all stock- Philanthropist - $500 milliono Gave much to universities, medical researcho Believed money was public trust given by godo The business of invention Some inventions give rise to new industry and improvements to quality of life Patents- Huge surge of patents issued in 1890s- Kodak camera leads to film and motion picture industryo Everyone could buy a camerao Fairly heavy, costs $25 and photos developed at factory- Transatlantic Cableo Cyrus W. Field used to link communications from US to Europeo Transformed communications- Desktops – 1867 typewriter, 1879 cash register, 1888 adding machine- Refrigerated train car - First “fast” food, transport food and meatso Has disassembly line for meat, later copied by Fordo Lead to Era of cheap Beef, Gustavus Swift- Telephoneo Alexander Bell, transmit speech electronicallyo By 1905 10 million phones operated in country- Thomas Edisono 1877 Phonograph, allowed something to be repeated verballyo 1879 Light bulb, allowed people to work longer JP Morgan funded him for power stationo The sellers New Science of Marketing- Some businesses would keep advertising in house, others used shopkeepers- 1867 $50 million, 1900 $500 million on advertising- Brand name such as


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