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Genus & Species:Cattle (Bovine)
Bos Taurus          Indicus         Bison
Genus & Species: Sheep (Ovine)
Ovis Aries
Genus & Species: Goat (Caprine)
Capra Hirius
Genus & Species: Pig
Sus Scrofa Domesticus
Genus & Species: Horse (Equine)
Equus Caballus
Genus & Species: Chicken
Gallus Domesticus
Intact Cattle
Young: Bull Calf Mature: Bull
Castrated Cattle
Young: Steer Mature: Stag
Intact Swine
Young: Boar Pig Mature: Boar
Castrated Swine
Young: Barrow Mature: Stag
Intact Sheep
Young: Ram Lamb Mature: Ram/Buck
Castrated Sheep
Young: Wether Mature: Stag
Intact Horse
Young: Colt Mature: Stallion/Stud
Castrated Horse
Young: Gelding
Intact Goat
Castrated Goat
Young: Weather
Intact Chicken
Young: Coctorel Mature: Rooster/Cock
Castrated Chicken
Young: Capon
Female Cattle
Young: Heffer Mature: Cow (2 years old)
Female Swine
Young: Gilt Mature: Sow (1 year old)
Female Sheep
Young: Ewe Lamb Mature: Lamb (1 year old)
Female Horse
Young: Filly Mature: Mare (3-4 years old)
Female Goat
Female Chicken
Young: Pullet Mature: Hen (18 meeks old)
Animal products are excellent source of ________
B-vitamins (and only natural source of B12)
Composition of Meats
70% Water 20% Protein~8% Fat1% Ash/Minerals1% Carb1% Vitamins
_________ are attached to bone
Skeletal Muscles
_________ are present in the stomach and repro tract along with circulatory system
Smooth Muscles 
_______ are part of the heart
________ are water soluble and associated with energy pathways
Sarcoplasmic Proteins 
______ give meat a purple color
Red; Oxygen in binding site; Fe2+
Brown; nothing in binding site; Fe3+
Myofibrillar Proteins
Contracting of muscles and gives muscle structure Salt Soluble
_____ and ____ are the main contractile proteins
Myosin and Actin
____ and ____ are the main regulatory proteins
Troponin and Tropomyosim
______ are acid soluble connective tissues
Stromal Protiens 
_____ is the major protein in the body
Collegen (white connective tissue)
_______ is yellow connective tissue seen in tendons.
T/F Pork is the least saturated meat
Animal meat is a poor source of vitamins _,_,_,_, & _
A, D, E, K, & C
List the factors that affect consumer acceptability
Tenderness JuicinessFlavor & AromaAppearancePrice
______, ______, & ______ impact tenderness
Contractile Proteins Connective TissueMarbling
Ways to Improve Tenderness
Electrical Stimulation AgingMarinatingTenderizersMechanical TenderizationProper Cooking
T/F Protein gives meat the species flavor
False- Fat gives meat species flavor               Protein gives meat a meaty flavor
_________ is caused by a high pH
Dark, Firm, & Dry (DFD) Beef with pH > 6.0
_______ is caused by having a low pH
Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE)  Pork with pH < 5.4
Carcass Value is determined by ______ & ______
Carcass Weight  Carcass Category or Grade
Carcass Weight
Dressing Percentage = Hot Carcass Weight / Live Weight X 100
What is Dressing Percentage affected by?
Fill FinishMusclingHide, Head, Feet Weight
T/F Carcass Grade on BEEF is evaluated between 12th & 13th rib
Yield Grade for Beef
12th rib backfat, inch
Quality Grade for Beef
Maturity= (A-E) bone size, shape, and ossification Marbling Score= Intramuscular fat contentNot used in industry today
Yield Grade for Pork
Last rib backfat, inch Muscle Score (1-3)Not used in industry today
% Fat Free Lean (Pork)
10th rib backfat Hot Carcass WeightLoineye area or depth49%-51%Substitute for Yield Grade and Quality Grade
Yield Grade for Lamb
12th rib backfat, inch
Quality Grade for Lamb
(Prime, Choice,Good, Utility, Cull) MaturityFlank StreakingConformationFlank Firmness
Six Classes of Nutrients
Water CarbohydratesMineralsProteinFatsVitamins
_____ & _____ are micronutrients
Minerals Vitamins
T/F Water is the only macronutrient
FALSE Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fats are also macronutrients
T/F Feed costs are the largest production cost in the livestock industry
True  60%-75%
T/F Water Comprises 70%-75% of body weight
T/F Protein is the primary nutrient to provide energy
False Carbohydrates
Glucose FructoseGalactoseRibose/Deoxyribose
Sucrose(GLU+FRU) Lactose(GLU+GAL)Maltose(GLU+GLU)
______, ______, ______, ______, & ______ are polysaccharides
Starch GlycogenCelluloseHemicelluloseLignin
T/F Starch is bonded by beta 1-4 linkages
False Cellulose is bonded by beta 1-4 Starch is bonded by alpha 1-4 linkages
Starch is primarily in ______ while Cellulose is primarily found in ______
Concentrates (High energy, Low fiber) Roughages (Low energy, High fiber)
Amount of Energy from Carbohydrates
4.2 Kcal/g
Essential Fatty Acids
Linoleic Acid Linolenic AcidArchidonic Acid
Compound Lipids
Glycolipids LipoproteinsPhospholipids
Types of Sterols
Cholesterol  Steroid HormonesVitamin Precursors
Essential Proteins
Methionine ArginineThreonineTryptophanHistidineIsclucineLeucineLysineValinePhenylalamine
T/F Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to form proteins
Semi-Essential Proteins
Glysine TyrosineCysteine
Functions of Proteins
Structure Regulatory and ProtectionEnergy
Percent Crude Protein
% Nitrogen X 6.25
T/F Protein contains 16% nitrogen
Non-Nitrogen Protein
Used only by microorganisms in rumen
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A, D, E, K
T/F Ruminants need all fat soluble vitamins
False  All except Vitamin K
Ca, P, Na, K, Cl, Mg, S
____ (in ___) ->Digestible Energy(in ____)->____(in the form of heat)->Net Energy->___
Gross Energy (in feces) In Urine & GasesMetabolizible EnergyProduction and Maintenance
Components of Feedstuffs
Moisture(water) Crude ProteinCrude FatCrude FiberNitrogen-free extractAsh
% Digestable Nutrient
(nutrient in feed-nutrient in feces)/ Nutrient in feed X 100
% Total Digestible Nutrient
% digestible protien + % digestible fat X (2.25)+ % digestible crude fiber+% digestible NFE
Metabolic Weight
(Body Weight) ^0.75
If a 500lb steer=15lb of feed then a 1000lb steer=? lb feed
(500)^0.75=105.7 (1000)^0.75=177.8105.7 / 177.8=1.71000 lb steer needs (15 X 1.7)=25.5
T/F All of the nutrients fed to livestock are used for maintenance requirements
False only half are used for maintenance requirements
Parts of Monogastric Digestive Tract
Mouth EsophagusStomachSmall IntestineLarge Intestine
Parts of Rumenant Digestive Tract
Mouth EsophagusRumen
T/F Ruminant animals have enzymes in their saliva
False, saliva is used for lubrication in ruminant animals enzymes are present in monogastric animals saliva
Water Absorption  Sorting
Honeycomb that sorts  heavy particles stay while lighter particles fall down to the rumen
Secretes HCl, pepsin, lysozyme
Belching Prevents bloating
The stomach secretes _____ and produces enzymes: ______&______
HCl PepsinRennin
Three Sections of Small Intestine
Duodenum JejunumIleum
T/F Pancreas secretes enzymes into the duodenum to breakdown macromolecules
_______ secretes bile produced in the liver
Gall Bladder
Pancreas secretes _____ & ______ to control blood glucose levels
Insulin Glucagon
Parts of Large Intestine
Cecum ColonRectum
T/F The cecum is the site of microbial digestion in cows
False; The cecum in HORSES is the site of microbial digestion
Volatile Fatty Acids
Acetate ProprionateButyrate
______ is the major site of water absorption (mono)
Volatile fatty acids are produced in the _____
T/F Horses have gall bladders
False; Horses do not have gall bladders
T/F The rumen turns unsaturated fat into saturated fats
Adenine Guanine
Thymine Cytosine
T/F Mitosis forms haploid cell from diploid cell
False;  Meiosis forms haploid cells from diploid cells Mitosis forms diploid cells from haploid cell
Spermatogenisis forms _____ sperm and oogenisis forms one ovum
T/F Mitosis occurs after fertilization
____ are controlled by one or two genes
Qualitative Traits
_____ are controlled by many genes
Quantitative Traits
Distantly related parents produce a better performing offspring
h^2= Genotype/ (Genotype + Environment)
T/F Lowly heritable traits generally exhibit a greater amount of heterosis than highly
_____________ obtains maximum heterosis
Two Breed Terminal Cross
Protein found in anterior pituitary that stimulates growth of bone and muscles and milk production
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Glycoprotein in anterior pituitary that initiates spermatogenisis in males and stimulates estrogen production and granulosa cells in females
Luteinizing Hormone
Glycoprotein in anterior pituitary that stimulates interstitial cless to produce testosterone in males and stimulates luteal cells on ovary
T/F The luteinizing hormone forms the corpus luteum
True; Also stimulates estrogen and progesterone production, and stimulates ovulation
___________ initiates and maintains lactation
Stimulates contraction of smoother muscle of uterus and oviduct Stimulates "milk letdown"
Gonadotroph Hormone stimulates release of ___ & ___
Adrenocorticotropin Hormone
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteriods involved in energy metabolism
T/F Gonadal hormones are derived from cholesterol
Testosterone is produced in the ______ cells
______ stimulates estrus behavior
T/F Estrogen stimulates duct development in the mammary gland
T/F Progesterone is produced only by the corpus luteum
False; produced by the corpus luteum and placenta
_______ causes regression of the corpus luteum & restarts estrous cycle
T/F The thyroid gland need iodine for normal function
_______ regulates sodium, calcium, and water balance
___________ regulates testes distance from body
Cremaster muscles
______ controls maturation, storage, and concentration of sperm cells
___________ transports sperm from caudal epididymus to urethra
Vas Deferens
T/F Seminal Vesicle secretes fluid into the urethra and is largest in the boar
T/F Boars do not have ampulla
T/F Bulls do not have Prostate Glands
False rams do not have prostate glands
______ large gland in the boar that empties into urethra away from the bladder
Cowpers Gland
T/F The bull, ram, and horse have fibroeleastic penis
False; Bull Ram and Boar have fibroelastic penis Horse has non-fibroelastic penis
Pigs have _______ stucture in which the uterine horns are large and body is small
T/F Bipartite structure is present in the horse, cow, and ewe
_______ keeps uterus clean, only open during parturition and estrus
T/F The cow, ewe, and sow have collagenous rings for cervix
TRUE Horses have folds
T/F The vagina is the site for semen deposition in the sow
False ; the cervix is site of semen deposition in the sow the vagina is the site of semen deposition in the cow and ewe
______ removes surface components of sperm and allows maturation of sperm
Primary Follicle
ovum surrounded by single layer of granulosa cell
Secondary Follicle
Granulosa cells increase in number through mitosis
Tertiary Follicle
begin to see antrum formation
Graafian Follicle
Mature follicle with mature ova, near rupture
_____ occurs with a surge of LH stimulate enzyme to digest follicle wall
______ forms digestive tract, liver, lungs, kidneys
______ forms muscle, bone, and fat
_______ forms skin, hair, brain, and spinal cord
_______ layer of blastocyst grows into the fetus
Inner cell mass
______ forms placenta and embryonic membranes
_______ is a layer of placenta that is in contact with uterus
______ is the layer of the placenta that is closest to the embryo
T/F the cow and the ewe have diffuse placental attachment
FALSE cow and ewe have cotyledonary attachments (specific points)sow and mare have diffuse attachment (entire placenta)
Functions of Placenta
Nourishment ProtectionRespirationWaste RemovalHormone Prodcution
T/F In Cow and Sow CL is present throughout pregnancy
Gestation Lengths
Cow=9months Sow= 3months 3 weeks 3 daysEwe= 5monthsHorse= 11 months
Factors Influencing Fetal Size
Genetics Age and Size of DamNutritionLitter SizeAmbient temperatureFetal Hormones
T/F Ewes and Mares are seasonal breeders
Signs of estrus in Cow
Stands to be mounted  Swelliing/Redness of vulvaRestlessness/vocalizationRide herd mates
Signs of Estrus in Sow
Swelling/Redness of vulva Restlessness/VocalizationMounts other sowsStands to be mountedErect earsstands for hand pressure
Signs of Estrus in Mare
Nervousness Frequent urination/squattingStands for maleWinking of vulva
Advantages of Artificial Insemination
Use of genetically superior sires Control DiseaseEliminate excess males on farmAccurate record keeping
If checking sows for estrus once a day, sow should be bred within _______ after detection
24 hours 12 hours if checking twice a day
T/F Cow and ewe should be bred 12 hours after detection
T/F There is no interchange of milk between udders
Udders are supported by _____, ______, and _______
Median suspensory ligament Lateral suspensory ligamentConnective tissue
________ are the milk producing cells
Epithelial cells
_____ are smooth muscles that cause milk secretion into the lumen of the alveolus
Myoepithelial cells
________ is needed for alveolar-lobule development
T/F Adrenaline blocks the effects of oxytocin
______ causes contraction of myoepithelial cells
First milk (colostrum) is high in _______________
Dairy cows generally lactate for _______
10-12 months
This months production/ Last months production X 100
A cows lactation schedule is adjusted in ______
305 days
T/F Dry period is 40-60 days
Factors Affecting Milk Production
Breed Size AgeLength of dry periodNutritionBody ConditionMilking frequencySeasonDiseaseManagement
Inflammation of udder Caused by microbrial infectionReduces milk yield
T/F Overfeeding can result in scours
TRUE This is the #1 cause of calf mortality
Meat production is the main purpose of _______beef production
Four Segments of Beef Production
Purebred CommercialStockerFinishing/Feedlot
T/F Elite producers determine the direction of the industry by producing high valued cows
_______ sell bulls and semen and spread the germ plasma
Profitability of Beef Production determined by:
Percent Calf Crop Weaned Calf Weaning WeightAnimal Cow Cost
Breakeven price=
Annual Cow Cost/Lbs of Calf Weaned Per Cow
Lbs of calf weaned per cow=
% Calf Crop X Weaning Weight
Factors Affecting Weaning Weight
Season Quality of forage availableGrowth StimulatesCreep FeedingHeard Health ManagementBull's Weaning Weight EPDsHeterosis
T/F Milk fever is seen soon after calving, signs reduced appetite, nervousness, & collapse
T/F Oxymyoglobin has water in its binding site and has Fe2+
False  Oxymyoglobin has oxygen in its binding siteDeoxymyoglobin has water in binding site

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