SC BIOL 110 - 4, A tour of the Cell (36 pages)

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4, A tour of the Cell



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4, A tour of the Cell

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Chapter 4


Pages:
36
School:
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Course:
Biol 110 - General Biology

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Overview The Fundamental Units of Life All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live Cell structure is correlated to cellular function All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye In a light microscope LM visible light passes through a specimen and then through glass lenses which magnify the image 10 m Human height Length of some nerve and muscle cells 0 1 m Chicken egg 1 cm Frog egg 100 m 10 m Most plant and animal cells Nucleus Most bacteria 1 m 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 0 1 nm Mitochondrion Smallest bacteria Viruses Ribosomes Proteins Lipids Small molecules Atoms Electron microscope 1 mm Light microscope 1m Unaided eye Fig 6 2 Most subcellular structures including organelles membrane enclosed compartments are too small to be resolved by an LM Two basic types of electron microscopes EMs are used to study subcellular structures Scanning electron microscopes SEMs focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen providing images that look 3 D Transmission electron microscopes TEMs focus a beam of electrons through a specimen TEMs are used mainly to study the internal structure of cells Fig 6 4 TECHNIQUE a Scanning electron microscopy SEM RESULTS Cilia 1 m b Transmission electron Longitudinal Cross section section of of cilium microscopy TEM 1 m cilium Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic Only organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells Protists fungi animals and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells Basic features of all cells 1 Plasma membrane 2 Chromosomes carry genes 3 Semifluid substance called cytosol 4 Ribosomes make proteins Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having 1 No nucleus 2 DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid 3 No



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