SC BIOL 110 - 7, Photosynthesis (14 pages)

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7, Photosynthesis



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7, Photosynthesis

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Chapter 7


Pages:
14
School:
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Course:
Biol 110 - General Biology

Unformatted text preview:

Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy Directly or indirectly photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules Almost all plants are photoautotrophs using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from H2O and CO2 Photosynthesis occurs in plants algae certain other protists and some prokaryotes These organisms feed not only themselves but also most of the living world Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms Heterotrophs are the consumers of the biosphere Almost all heterotrophs including humans depend on photoautotrophs for food and O2 The structural organization of Plant cells allows for the chemical reactions of photosynthesis Their green color is from chlorophyll the green pigment within chloroplasts Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll drives the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast CO2 enters and O2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata Photosynthesis can be summarized as the following 6 CO2 12 H2O Light energy C6H12O6 6 O2 6 H2O Fig 10 3 Leaf cross section Vein Mesophyll Stomata Chloroplast CO2 O2 Mesophyll cell Outer membrane Thylakoid Stroma Granum Thylakoid space Intermembrane space Inner membrane 1 m 5 m Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions the photo part and Calvin cycle the synthesis part 1 The light reactions in the thylakoids Reduce NADP to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP 2 The Calvin cycle in the stroma forms sugar from CO2 using ATP and NADPH The Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation incorporating CO2 into organic molecules Fig 10 5 4 CO2 H2O Light NADP ADP P i Light Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH Chloroplast O2 CH2O sugar Fig 10 7 Light Reflected light Chloroplast Absorbed light Granum Transmitted light Fig 10 11 Energy of



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