SC BIOL 110 - 8, Cellular Reproduction (31 pages)

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8, Cellular Reproduction



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8, Cellular Reproduction

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Chapter 8


Pages:
31
School:
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Course:
Biol 110 - General Biology

Unformatted text preview:

Cell division The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells or cell division In unicellular organisms division of one cell reproduces the entire organism All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell s genome Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle the life of a cell from formation to its own division DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Mitosis is the process of cell division that produces daughter cells with identical genetic information this happens in the entire body except testis and ovary Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces gametes sperm or egg in reproductive organs testis and ovary of male and female respectively Meiosis yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes half as many as the parent cell In Mitosis The Eukaryotic cell cycle consists of 2 phases 1 Mitotic M phase cell division phase a Mitosis division of the nucleus b Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm 2 Interphase cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division It s about 90 of the cell cycle can be divided into subphases G1 phase first gap S phase synthesis G2 phase second gap Fig 12 5 S DNA synthesis G1 M ito si s in k to y C is s e M IT M OTIC PHA SE G2 Eukaryotic cell division Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases 1 Prophase 2 Prometaphase 3 Metaphase 4 Anaphase 5 Telophase Cytokinesis is well underway by late telophase Fig 12 6 G2 of Interphase Centrosomes Chromatin with centriole duplicated pairs Prophase Early mitotic Aster Centromere spindle Nucleolus Nuclear Plasma envelope membrane Chromosome consisting of two sister chromatids Metaphase Prometaphase Fragments Nonkinetochore of nuclear microtubules envelope Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule Anaphase Cleavage furrow Metaphase plate Spindle Centrosome at one spindle pole Telophase and Cytokinesis Daughter chromosomes Nuclear



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