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Test 3 ReviewMarriage trends and how they have changed non-marital births.-Around the 1950’s, the ages were lower than they are now. They have increased since. -Childbearing is less tied to marriage than it was before.Trends in divorce; when was the peak of divorce, how have divorce rates changed?-after the 1950’s, the divorce rate increased and reached a peak in 1980. -It reached its peak between 1975 and 1980. -Divorce rates have increased. High after war, low after great depression, higher among lower income couplesMarriage and family trends in LDR’s; are they all similar?-multiple variations in marriage-marriage, polygyny, cohabitation, and stable childbearing relationshipsSecond demographic transition-change from traditional idea of marriage to more cohabitating and out of wedlock parentingConsequences of living in single parent families-children are more at risk for povertyHow do children of divorce fare?-Pre-divorce trauma, the crisis period, sleeper effectWhy is marriage important for demographers to study?-Refined rates and why they are beneficial-a rate whose numerator contains all of the specified population events in a given year but whose denominator contains not the total population but some subset more narrowly defining the at-risk population -the denominator is only the people at risk, not the entire population. So, it depicts the current status accuratelyFirst-marriage curve-most are married by age 30-at 50, you’re pretty much forever alone-The older you get, the less likely it is someone will get married3 common features of marriage across cultures and countries-women in all countries still form stable marital/sexual unions.-there are worldwide similarities Trends in age at first marriage in the US; when were they high? Low?Marriage market-composition of the marriageable populationMarriage squeeze-when there are shortages of the correct age category of potential matesDefinitions of: ever-married, never-married, formerly married, marital dissolution-currently married, divorced, or widowed-single people-divorced or widowed-the process of spouse mortality and divorceKnow types of migration and what causes them-Internal: within a country (interregional, internal)-International: between countries-Immigration (entering a country)-Emigration (exiting a country)Sunbelt vs. Frostbelt states, where are people migrating?-Sunbelt states are the 15 southern states from California to Florida-Frostbelt states are in the Northeastern US, Great Lakes region-people from the northeast and the Midwest are moving to the south and the westWhich cities are projected to be the largest mega cities in the world in 2015?-the ones in LDR’sDonor and host society-Donor: area of origin-Host: area of destinationWhat three conditions migration must satisfy?-it must involve a permanent or semi-permanent change in one’s residence-it must cross some administrative boundary-it must occur during a given time or period Figure 9-1 in the text: be able to identify the in-migration number, out-migration number, and netmigration -Migration streams; what were trends in the past? Now? In terms of LDRs and MDRs? What influences modern migration streams?-Migration streams: consist of the people who migrate from one specified area to another specified area in a given period of time-Past trend: Europe to North America; Latin European to Central and South America; Great Britain to Australia and Africa-Current trends: Latin Americans to North America-Shift from migration streams from MDR’s to LDR’s to now being LDR’s to MDR’s-Global economic development, demographics of post-transition countries, and conflict within the developing worldRefugees and forced migration-Refugees: people who are forced to migrate to avoid persecution, war or disaster-Forced migration: results, indirectly or directly from state expansions or conflicts (slavery,the colonies)Brain drain-the loss of the most highly educated individuals to migrations-most likely to migrate from LDR’s are the educatedRemittances-workers abroad send money to their families which may improve national income in their home countryPositive selectivity-certain people are more likely to migrate than others, but the impact is positive for the host country (brain drain)Neoclassical macroeconomic theory/neoclassical microeconomic theory-mass migration will tend to flow from countries with an oversupply of labor to those with unmet demands for labor-individuals make rational choices on whether to migrate based on cost-benefit calculationsMigration systems theory-once migration stream has begun, systematic effects can arise that supports continuing migrationMega-city: size and characteristics-size: city over 10 million-characteristics: density, squatters, socio-economic disparities, risks and vulnerability, urban governance, large population (mainly LDR’s), dynamism of growthUrban corridor-cities of various sizes linked through transportation and economics3 main components of urban growth-urban natural increase, net migration, reclassificationPolicies to limit urban growthMaldistribution in LDRs-tendency for the largest city to grow the most disproportionately large. The benefits from urbanization are not spread evenly across a countryProblems of urbanization in LDRs-Governmental concerns (unsustainable due to poverty, crime, etc.)-Policies (to control migration, limit growth, and redirecting migration from mid-size to smaller cities)-Migration (out experience brain drain; in coping with speed of growth)-MaldistributionReasons for limited success of urban growth policies-the strength of the attraction that urban areas have for migrants -weak and conflicting population redistributions-continuing high rates of natural increase in LDR’sExamples of urban corridors-Mumbai and Delhi in India-Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to Klang (manufacturing and service industry corridor)-Ibadan-Lagos-Accura in West AfricaMigration and contribution to urban growth-as cities grow, migration makes proportionately less of a contribution to urban

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FSU SYD 3020 - Test 3 Review

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