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SYD 3020 Final Study GuideCumulative questions7 Billion and CountingWhat is the demographic balancing (accounting) equation and what are its components? Which of these components add to population size? Which components subtract from population size?- The demographic balancing equation reflects an imbalance in the immediate causes of population growth. The components are births and deaths. Births add to population size, whereasdeath subtracts to population size. What is natural increase? - The difference between births and deathsWhat is the current global rate of natural increase? In what area or areas of the world are ratesof natural increase highest? In what area or areas are rates lowest? - The global natural increase is +1.2%. The areas of the world experiencing high rates of natural increase are LDCs, whereas the lowest rates are in the MDCs. How large was the global population at the start of the 20th century? - 1.6 billion people What is the demographic transition? What are its two components—that is, what two demographic variables “transition”? How is the demographic transition responsible for the unprecedented levels of population growth that characterized the 20th century? - The shifts in death and birth rates that have occurred over long periods of time. We must look at how different the transition has been in developed and developing countries. The transition describes two trends: The decline in births and decline in deaths. It is responsible because of the improvements in medicine, and immunization campaigns after WWII. About what percentage of the world’s population lives in countries in Phase 1 of the demographic transition? How about Phases 2, 3, and 4? - Phase 1- 9% 2-7% 3-38% 4-46%Population Growth and Resources: Classic PerspectivesWho was Thomas Malthus and what book did he author? What were the two “natural laws” that he formulated in this book? - Thomas Malthus was known as “the gloomy person” because of his pessimism towards population growth. He wrote the book “Essay on the Principle of Education”. The two natural laws presented by Malthus were: Population grows exponentially (2,4,8), while resources grow in linear fashion (1,2,3).Describe the Malthusian cycle. What drives the cycle? Can we ever escape it? How? What is apreventive check? What is a positive check?- Population declines Food supply sufficient So population grows Strain on food supply leads to increased mortality as positive checks (disease, war starvation) operate  Population declines. The cycle is driven by sex, although he claims that we can escape it by educating people and promoting abstinence (preventive check- moral restraint) What did Karl Marx’s view as the primary fault of Malthus’ argument about the relationship between population growth and resources? - Pressure of growth not against means of subsistence but against means of employment. Food shortages and poverty not due to population growth but to shortage of jobs paying a living wage.To what did Marx attribute the inability of workers’ families to get sufficient food and other resources necessary to their survival?- Capitalism true culprit behind inability of workers to feed families. Invest in new technologies  fewer jobs for workers. Result: low wages, growing population of poor families. Health & SurvivalDuring what century did e0 begin to show sustained improvement, at least in European and European-origin populations? - 19th century What country currently has the highest value for e0? What is this value (overall, not gender-specific)? What is the current global value for e0? - Japan. Its current global value is 82. the global value was 70 yearsDescribe the age structure of mortality: At what ages is the risk of death highest? At what ages is it lowest? - Communicable, non-communicable diseases, or nutritional problems. Cause of death structures vary across… historical epochs, socioeconomic development across populations, demographic groups, (age, sex) within populations. –variation on certain diseases. The risk of death is highest at birth. The lowest age at which death is the lowest is at…10-15?According to the CDC, what are the two top causes of death in the United States (considered across all ages)? Approximately what share of U.S. deaths is due to these two causes?- The two main causes of death in the United States are: Heart disease and malignant neoplasms.What is e0 for the US? What are the sex-specific values? How do these values compare to those in other countries with comparable living standards?- 79 years old. Females- 81 Males- 76. Lowest of other countries were comparable to living standardsIn what world region is improvement in health and mortality lagging? Or, put another way, in what region is e0 particularly low? - Sub-Saharan Africa With respect to the cause-structure of mortality, why does Africa stand out?- High Fertility levels and poor Healthcare system How did the prevailing causes of death and life expectancy change over time, according to epidemiologic transition theory (ETT)? What factors were responsible for the changes at each stage? - Predominant causes linked to Modernization – Technology, agricultural improvements, health conditions, etc… What is the key assumption of the ETT? Does the cause-of-death structure in low-income/developing countries support this assumption or contradict it? - It contradicts it because there is no truth in it. Illnesses such as HIV, among others have emerged. And technology has discovered them, but hasn’t been able to find cure for them. FertilityThe fertility transition began when couples started to be concerned about family size more than birth spacing. What demographic change stimulated this new concern?- Social, economic, and environmental factorsproximate determinant (biological and behavioral factors)fertility.Fertility rates differ across age groups. In the US today, age-specific fertility rates are rising at for which age groups? Falling for which age groups? What social structural factor(s) explain this pattern?- 20-24 have gone down overtime. 25-29 have remained stable. About what share of women of reproductive age in the United States are not using a contraceptive method? - 21% (79% do)Identify the two most popular contraceptive methods in the contemporary U.S. How does their use vary by age and marital status?- Hormonal and Surgical methods Provide an

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FSU SYD 3020 - Final Study Guide

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