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SYD 3020 STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TEST 2 Test 2 will have the same format as Test 1 fifty multiple choice questions The test will cover the second half of the semester including lectures 12 through 25 and the readings from February 25th through April 24th Your notes from these lectures the PowerPoint slides on BlackBoard and the assigned readings provide the answers to the Study Questions below Test questions will be drawn from this study guide and from the Daily Questions Mortality Health and Survival How does life expectancy differ from life span Life expectancy average expected years of life Life span age limit of human life a constant biologically determined upper limit What is the relationship between life expectancy e0 and longevity Longevity is the length of life or the ability to remain alive from one year to the next and in populations it is measured by life expectancy What is the relationship between the life table and life expectancy Explain years of life remaining The number on the charts indicate the number of years of life someone has left not the age at which they are expected to die What country currently has the highest value for e0 What is this value overall not gender specific What is the current global value for e0 Japan hold the world s highest value 83 The current global value is 70 Thinking generally how does life expectancy differ by sex That is who tends to live longer males or females Sometimes this general pattern doesn t hold in what kind of population does this happen Females tend to live longer than males because hormones effect longevity Testosterone is an immune suppressant In Zimbabwe males live longer than females and in Afghanistan man and women live to be the same age Explain the lazy J the age curve of mortality What causes its basic shape What influences its height At what ages is the risk of death highest At what age range is it lowest Highest risk of death is right at birth What is the IMR In what country is it lowest Why does the US not have the lowest IMR in the world even though we spend more on health care than other countries Infant Mortality Rate It is the lowest in Japan The US does not have the lowest rate because What is a country s cause structure of mortality It is the prevailing top cause of death They vary across historical periods social and demographic groups and socioeconomic developments within a population What is the source of data on numbers and causes of death in the United States Center for Disease Control What is the ICD Who produces it Why is it important International Classification of Diseases It is produced by the World Health Organization It is important because it According to the CDC what are the two top causes of death in the United States considered across all ages Approximately what share of U S deaths is due to these two causes What is the top cause of infant death What is the top cause of death for children and young adults 47 9 The 2 top causes are heart disease and malignant neoplasms Congenital Anomalies Unintentional Injuries Why do the leading causes of death in the U S vary by sex Leading causes of death vary because men have higher levels of testosterone decreasing there immune system Summarize epidemiologic transition theory ETT You should be able to identify the name of each of its stages life expectancy at each stage the approximate dates for each stage the prevailing causes of death at each stage and what led to the transition from one stage to the next Age of Pestilence o Life expectancy 20 30 yrs o BCE ca 1750 o Pandemic deseases spread via trade routes Example Black Plague Exacerbated by living conditions nutrition Age of Receding Pandemics o Life expectancy 30 50 yrs o Two stages SYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide Spring 2013 Page 2 1750 1850 Improved agriculture transportation and communication 1850 1930 Public sanitation and medical advances o Germ theory of disease treatments a Penicillin 1928 b Antibacterial sulfonamides 1932 o Vaccinations Prevention a 1796 Jenner and the smallpox vaccination b By mid 20th century diphtheria measles mumps rubella and polio Age of Human Caused and Degenerative Diseases o Life expectancy approx 50 70 yrs o 1930 1960 o Share of deaths from degenerative diseases and human cause rose Age structure of mortality change Fewer infant mortality change Mortality more controlled at older ages Life style change Alcohol tobacco foods Environmental exposure Toxins pollutants carcinogens Age of delayed degenerative diseases o Life expectancy 70yrs o 1960 present o More likely to be caused by lifestyle o Greater concentration of deaths due to cardiovascular issues and cancer o Continuation of concentration of mortality at older ages o Green Movement Love Canal Awareness of the impact of toxins What is the key assumption of the ETT Does the cause of death structure in low income developing countries support this assumption or contradict it It is based on the experience of the developed world It assumes sustained and irreversible transition with social economic development It contradicts it because the top 2 diseases are degenerative What does the experience of the former Soviet Union suggest about the underlying assumption of the ETT What about emerging diseases and drug resistant forms of existing diseases What is a mortality shock About what percentage of Malawians are HIV positive How does this compare to the percentage infected in sub Saharan Africa more generally How about in the United States What does VCT stand for SYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide Spring 2013 Page 3 11 8 This is much greater than the 5 who are positive in Sub Saharan Africa About how many people lack access to sanitary facilities To clean water Identify the following persons Jeanne Louise Calment Edward Jenner Abdel Omran Jeanne Louise Calment the longest validated human life 122 yrs Feb 21 1875 Aug 4 1997 Edward Jenner inventor of the smallpox vaccine Abdel Orman described historical pattern of change in health and disease partly in response to socioeconomic modernization Came up with the ETT Theory Populations by Age and Sex What questions does the Census Bureau use on the decennial census to determine a person s age Why are demographers so careful to get good data about age how old are you and how old is your population Demographers are careful to get good data because it calculates benefits What is age heaping How is it related to digit preference Age heaping is when people guess their age usually choosing

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FSU SYD 3020 - TEST 2

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