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SYD 3020STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TEST 2Test 2 will have the same format as Test 1: fifty multiple choice questions. The test will cover the second half of the semester, including lectures 12 through 25, and the readings from February 25th through April 24th. Your notes from these lectures, the PowerPoint slides on BlackBoard, and the assigned readings provide the answers to the Study Questions below. Test questions will be drawn from this study guide and from the Daily Questions. Mortality, Health, and SurvivalHow does life expectancy differ from life span? • Life expectancy- average (expected years of life • Life span- age limit of human life, a constant biologically determined upper limit What is the relationship between life expectancy (e0) and longevity? • Longevity is the length of life, or the ability to remain alive from one year to the next and in populations it is measured by life expectancyWhat is the relationship between the life table and life expectancy? Explain “years of life remaining.” • The number on the charts indicate the number of years of life someone has left, not the age at which they are expected to die.What country currently has the highest value for e0? What is this value (overall, not gender-specific)? What is the current global value for e0? • Japan hold the world’s highest value (83)• The current global value is 70Thinking generally, how does life expectancy differ by sex? That is, who tends to live longer: males or females? Sometimes, this general pattern doesn’t hold; in what kind of population does this happen? • Females tend to live longer than males because hormones effect longevity. Testosterone is an immune suppressant.• In Zimbabwe, males live longer than females, and in Afghanistan, man and women live to be the same ageExplain the “lazy J” – the age curve of mortality. What causes its basic shape? What influences its height?At what ages is the risk of death highest? At what age range is it lowest? • Highest risk of death is right at birthWhat is the IMR? In what country is it lowest? Why does the US not have the lowest IMR in the world, even though we spend more on health care than other countries?• Infant Mortality Rate. • It is the lowest in Japan• The US does not have the lowest rate becauseWhat is a country’s cause structure of mortality?• It is the prevailing (top) cause of death. They vary across historical periods, social and demographic groups, and socioeconomic developments within a population.What is the source of data on numbers and causes of death in the United States? • Center for Disease ControlWhat is the ICD? Who produces it? Why is it important?• International Classification of Diseases • It is produced by the World Health Organization• It is important because it According to the CDC, what are the two top causes of death in the United States (considered across all ages)? Approximately what share of U.S. deaths is due to these two causes? What is the top cause of infant death? What is the top cause of death for children and young adults? • The 2 top causes are heart disease and malignant neoplasms• 47.9%• Congenital Anomalies• Unintentional InjuriesWhy do the leading causes of death in the U.S. vary by sex?• Leading causes of death vary because men have higher levels of testosterone decreasing there immune systemSummarize epidemiologic transition theory (ETT). You should be able to identify the name of each of its stages; life expectancy at each stage; the approximate dates for each stage; the prevailing causes of death at each stage; and what led to the transition from one stage to the next. • Age of Pestilenceo Life expectancy- 20-30 yrso BCE-ca.1750o Pandemic deseases (spread via trade routes) Example Black Plague Exacerbated by living conditions, nutrition• Age of Receding Pandemicso Life expectancy- 30-50 yrs.o Two stages:SYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide, Spring 2013 Page 2 1750-1850. Improved agriculture, transportation and communication 1850-1930. Public sanitation and medical advanceso Germ theory of disease → treatmentsa. Penicillin -1928b. Antibacterial sulfonamides- 1932o Vaccinations→ Preventiona. 1796- Jenner and the smallpox vaccinationb. By mid 20th century: diphtheria, measles, mumps, rubella, and polio• Age of Human Caused and Degenerative Diseaseso Life expectancy- approx. 50-70 yrso 1930-1960o Share of deaths from degenerative diseases and human cause rose Age structure of mortality change• Fewer infant mortality change• Mortality more controlled at older ages Life style change:• Alcohol, tobacco, foods Environmental exposure:• Toxins, pollutants, carcinogens• Age of delayed degenerative diseaseso Life expectancy- >70yrso 1960-presento More likely to be caused by lifestyleo Greater concentration of deaths due to cardiovascular issues and cancero Continuation of concentration of mortality at older ageso Green Movement- Love Canal Awareness of the impact of toxinsWhat is the key assumption of the ETT? Does the cause-of-death structure in low-income/developing countries support this assumption or contradict it? • It is based on the experience of the developed world• It assumes sustained and irreversible transition with social, economic development • It contradicts it because the top 2 diseases are degenerativeWhat does the experience of the former Soviet Union suggest about the underlying assumption of the ETT? What about emerging diseases and drug-resistant forms of existing diseases? What is a mortality shock?About what percentage of Malawians are HIV-positive? How does this compare to the percentage infected in sub-Saharan Africa more generally? How about in the United States? What does VCT stand for? SYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide, Spring 2013 Page 3• 11.8%• This is much greater than the 5% who are positive in Sub-Saharan Africa•About how many people lack access to sanitary facilities? To clean water?Identify the following persons: Jeanne Louise Calment, Edward Jenner, Abdel Omran• Jeanne Louise Calment- the longest validated human life. 122 yrs. Feb.21, 1875-Aug .4, 1997• Edward Jenner- inventor of the smallpox vaccine• Abdel Orman- described historical pattern of change in health and disease, partly in response to socioeconomic modernization. Came up with the ETT Theory.Populations by Age and SexWhat questions does the Census Bureau use on the decennial

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FSU SYD 3020 - TEST 2

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