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SYD 3020STUDY QUESTIONS FOR TEST 2Mortality, Health, and Survival1. How does life expectancy differ from life span? Life expectancy is the average number of additional years a person could expect to live if current mortality trends were to continue for the rest of that person’s life. Most commonly cited as life expectancy at birth.Life span (constant) is the maximum age that human beings could reach under optimum conditions. Age limit of human life <<110-115 years>> 2. What is the relationship between life expectancy (e0) and longevity? Longevity (varies) is the length of life; the ability to remain alive from one year to the next. In populations, measured by life expectancy at birth: e0 (“average” expected years of life).3. What is the relationship between the life table and life expectancy? Explain “years of life remaining.” Life table is a tabular display of life expectancy and the probability of dying at each age (or age group) for a given population, according to the age-specific death rates prevailing at that time. The life table gives an organized, complete picture of a population’s mortality. >>Life expectancy can be calculated from life table. It can be estimated for any age years.4. What country currently has the highest value for e0? What is this value (overall, not gender-specific)? What is the current global value for e0? Country with highest value for e0: JapanOverall value: 83Current global value for e0: 705. Thinking generally, how does life expectancy differ by sex? That is, who tends to live longer: males or females? Sometimes, this general pattern doesn’t hold; in what kind of population does this happen? Females tend to life longer. In such case that this general pattern doesn’t hold, it would be because the population .6. Explain the “lazy J” – the age curve of mortality. What causes its basic shape? What influences its height?The age curve of mortality is referred to as the “lazy J” because it is in the shape as the letter “J.” Deaths to persons under age 1 divided by live births during the year is what causes its basic shape. Death rates per thousand is what influences its height.7. At what ages is the risk of death highest? At what age range is it lowest? Risk of death is highest: >60 Risk of death is lowest: 5-98. What is the IMR? In what country is it lowest? Why does the US not have the lowest IMR in the world, even though we spend more on health care than other countries? Deaths to persons under age 1IMR= __________________________ X 1000 Live births during the yearCountry w/ lowest IMR: JapanThe US does not have the lowest IMR in the world, despite the fact that we spend more on health care than other countries, because death rates are lower in more developed countries, and Japan is more developed. 9. What is a country’s cause structure of mortality?A country’s cause-structure of mortality is the prevailing causes of death. These cause-structures vary across:-Historical periods-Social and demographic groups (e.g.: age, sex, race) within populations-Socioeconomic development across populations10. What is the source of data on numbers and causes of death in the United States? - Immediate cause of death (final disease or condition resulting in death)- Sequentially list conditions, if any, leading to the cause of death.- Underlying cause (disease or injury that initiated the events resulting in death.SYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide, Spring 2013 Page 211. What is the ICD? Who produces it? Why is it important?The ICD is the International Classification of Diseases and is produced by the World of Health Organization (WHO). The ICD involves a detailed listing of all known diseases & medical conditions that can result in death. It is important because it provides a common language for reporting and monitoring diseases. 12. According to the CDC, what are the two top causes of death in the United States (considered across all ages)? Approximately what share of U.S. deaths is due to these two causes? What is the top cause of infant death? What is the top cause of death for children and young adults? Two top causes of death in the U.S.: Disease of Heart & Malignant neoplasm’sShare of U.S. deaths due to top 2 causes: 47.9%Top cause of infant death: Congenital AnomaliesTop cause of death for children and young adults: Unintentional Injury13. Why do the leading causes of death in the U.S. vary by sex?Leading causes of death in the U.S. vary by sex because; certain categories (international classification of diseases ICD) are limited to one sex.Ex: Men have higher rates of death from vascular disease (leading death cause) 14. Summarize epidemiologic transition theory (ETT). You should be able to identify the name of each of its stages; life expectancy at each stage; the approximate dates for each stage; the prevailing causes of death at each stage; and what led to the transition from one stage to the next. Epidemiologic transition theory (ETT) is the cause-structure of mortality changes over historical time. SYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide, Spring 2013 Page 3Two stages: 1. 1750 – 1850: Improved agriculture, transport, communication2. 1850 – 1930: public sanitation & medical advancesSYD 3020 Test 2 Study Guide, Spring 2013 Page 4Stage Year Causes of Death Transition Life ExpectancyAge of Pestilence & FaminePrehistory-1750Pandemic diseases• Spread via trade routes (e.g., Black Plague spread by rat fleas along trade routes)• Exacerbated by living conditions, nutrition Famine: reliance on local food supplies & primitive agriculturee0 ≈20-30Age of Receding Pandemics1750-1920s***Infection Endemic, parasitic, & deficiency diseases epidemic scourges, childhood & maternal complexesTuberculosis peaked with industrialization & generally more virulent in young females.Childhood: smallpoxEdward Jenner: vaccine against smallpox & practice of improved hygiene.Germ theory of disease treatments• Penicillin: 1928• Antibacterial sulfonamides, 1932e0≈30-50Age of human-caused & degenerative diseases1920s-1960Share of deaths from communicable diseases, infections:Share of deaths from degenerative diseases & human causes:Environmental exposure: toxins &pollutants (e.g., carcinogens)Lifestyle change: alcohol, tobacco, foodsAge structure of mortality changed:• Fewer infant, childhood deaths; • Mortality more concentrated at older agesPublic welfare & leisure spending grew=

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