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AnthropologyChildhoodChildCan other species experience childhood?28-Up (About)28-Up (Socio-economic distribution)28-Up (Characters)How can you identify a child?Education in England (Elite)Education in England (State-supported ed)HeterochronyOntogenyStages of human growth and developmentAdrenarcheExplanations for Childhood5 Reasons/Themes for Childhood according to BoginSpeciesLinnaean taxonomic hierarchyHumansMammalPrimates (Physical Characteristics)PrimatesHomonoidEvolutionTraits that distinguish humans from all other speciesHabitual striding bipedalismTool use and handpowerBrain size & brainpowerSpeech/languageCultural dependenceSpecies traitsLife historyGrowth & developmentDistance curve7 Stages of Human LifespanEmbryonic (gestation)InfancyJuvenile"Child" according Barry Bogin (3-7 years old)Children of HeavenChildren of Heaven (Characters)Children of Heaven: Do adults convey expectations about how a child should behave?Children of Heaven: Character BriefsSubsistenceCentral do BrasilCentral Station (Characters)Central Station: DoraCentral Station: JosueThree characteristics of childhood according to Konner (1977)Play behavior according to Parker (1984)Anthropology-the study (logos) of humans (anthros)Childhood-one stage in a sequence of stages that occur over the lifespan of all humans; the human childhood stage of life spans the time from about 3 to 7 years of ageChild-a version of humanCan other species experience childhood?-Other species experience change over the lifespan but only humans label one stage "childhood"28-Up (About)-14 British children born 1956 (10 boys, 4 girls)-Filmed in 7 year intervals starting in 196428-Up (Socio-economic distribution)-5 elite-Bruce, John, Andrew, Charles (M)-Suzi (F)-2 middle class-Peter, Neil-7 working class-Tony, Nick, Paul, Simon (M)-Jackie, Lyn, Sue (F)28-Up (Characters)Tony—jockey to cab driverBruce—sensitive teacherSuzi—chain smoker to happy motherNick—farm to physicsPaul—from children's home to Australia & bricklayingJohn—"barrister" (courtroom lawyer) (declined last interview)Andrew—"solicitor" (people's lawyer)Charles—BBC producer (declined last interview)Jackie—doesn't want children (comprehensive school)Lynn—librarian (after selective "grammar school")Sue—happy mother (after comprehensive school)Simon—from children's home to family life with five childrenHow can you identify a child?-Body size and proportions-Expressive behavior (lively vs. sedate)-Voice quality (high pitch vs. low pitch)-Speed of speech (rapid vs. slow)-Body movements (energetically-wasteful vs. energetically efficient)-Big dreams for the future vs. acceptance of limitationEducation in England (Elite)-Secondary school-"Public school" = prestigious, selective, private (often a boarding school)-Primary School-"Preparatory school" = prestigious, selective- admission, private (often a boarding school)Education in England (State-supported ed)-Secondary school-"Grammar school" ( a selective-admission, secondary school which prepares students for university)-"Comprehensive school" (a non-selective, state-funded secondary school)Heterochrony-an evolutionary process that alters the timing of growth stages from ancestors to their descendantsOntogeny-the process of growth, development, and maturation ofthe individual organism from conception to deathStages of human growth and development1) infancy, 2) childhood, 3) juvenility, 4) adolescence, and 5)adulthoodAdrenarche-the progressive increase in the secretion of adrenal androgen hormones; Adrenal androgens produce the mid-growth spurt in height, a transient acceleration of bone maturation, and the appearance of axillary andpubic hair, and seem to regulate the development of body fatness and fat distributionExplanations for Childhood1) an extended period for brain growth; 2) time for the acquisition of technical skills, e.g. toolmaking and food processing; and 3) time for socialization, play, and the development of complex social roles andcultural behavior.5 Reasons/Themes for Childhood according to Bogin1) Childhood is a feeding and reproductive adaptation.2) The allometry of the growth of the human child releases nurturing and care-giving behaviors in older individuals.3) Children are relatively inexpensive to feed.4) ''Babysitting'' is possible.5) A further important reason for the evolution of childhood is that childhood allows for developmental plasticity.Species-an important concept in biology that has helped us to organize and understand the variety of life on earthLinnaean taxonomic hierarchy-geneology chartHumans-Class: Mammals-Order: Primates-Superfamily: HominoideaMammal-Homeothermy/fur-Reproduction--Internal gestation--Lactation--Extended parental care---Emotional bond---Play behavior-Mastication (chew food)Primates (Physical Characteristics)-Eyes face forward-Bony protection-Cross-over of visual tracts-Stereoscopic vision-Color vision-Reduced snout for reduced emphasis on smellPrimates-Emphasize vision not smell-Manipulation with eye-hand coordination-Large brains-Slow maturation and long lifeHomonoidForearms are adapted for suspension and have a versatile range of motion-long muscular arms-rotator shoulder joint allows 360 rotation of the arm-fully extendable elbow-180 rotation of forearm-extended motion in wristEvolution-serves as a way of looking at the world that provides deep predictive and explanatory power....Natural selection and the complementary idea of how genes, individuals and species change over time should be as much a part of developing critical thinking skills as deductive reasoning and the study of ethicsTraits that distinguish humans from all other species-Striding bipedalism-Tool use & handpower-Brain size & brainpower-Speech/language-Cultural dependenceHabitual striding bipedalism-distinguishing traits of mammals; series of fallsTool use and handpower-versatility of hand use; distinguishing trait of mammalsBrain size & brainpower-Humans have a brain that is 6-7 times bigger than expected for a mammal of our body size-Compared to chimpanzees, humans have a large braincase and a small, flat face with small front teethSpeech/language-Learned, arbitrary-Cerebral cortex dependent-Displacement-Open system-Duality of patterning-Grammar-Quantity & quality of information humans transfer with language is enormousCultural dependence-Behavior (and the mental infrastructure that drives behavior)-Learned (extragenetic)-Shared by a group (a society, social

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FSU ANT 2416 - Final Exam Study Guide

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