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ANT2416 Final Study GuideFinal is Friday, December 14 at 3 PM- Emotiono Experiential componento Expressive componento Motivational componento Physiological component- Charles Darwino Studied emotional expression in children - No other mammal emphasizes facial communication as much as primates do…humans have inherited the primate use of the face as an instrument of communication- Emotions and social lifeo Hamburg 1963- specific emotions evolved to regulate social lifeo Myers 1976- Rhesus monkeys- same area of the brain involved in emotion and social life Loss of facial expression Loss of vocalization Avoidance of social interaction with other monkeys- Mammals have:o Lactation, maternal careo Infant separation cryo Play behavior Have none of these if you remove limbic cortex- Imprintingo Concept developed by Konrad Lorenzo Hatching will follow the first moving “object” (individual)o Critical period- happens one time; irreversible- John Bowlbyo Study of hospitalized children- distress without obvious causeo 1946 Spitz- grief and depression when children are institutionalizedo Nature of the child’s tie to his mother- “attachment” Defining features of attachment in humans:- Proximity maintenance- close to caretaker- Separation distress- protest when unable to maintain proximity- Safe haven- retreating to caregiver when sensing danger- Secure base- exploration of the world in the presence of the attachment figureo “Attachment” = an adaptation (created by natural selection)o Bowlby’s study results Very young infants are “indiscriminate” about caretakers- Phase 1 (birth—2/3 mos.)o Orient and signal without discrimination- Phase 2 (to 6 mos.)o Friendly to all but especially to mother- Phase 3 (6 mos. to 36 mos.)o Use all means to maintain proximity to mother/caregiver- Phase 4 (36 mos. +)o Decreased evidence of separation distress- Attachment across cultureso Mary Ainsworth developed a standardized and repeatable procedure for measuring attachment called the “Strange Situation” assessment “Strange Situation” assessment- Caregiver present behavior  caregiver separation behavior  caregiver reunion behavior- Examine behavior of “child” to measure attachment security- Harry Harlowo Isolated monkeys are socially defectiveo Search for critical inputs necessary to rear socially competent monkeyso Infants will remain in contact with a cloth “mother”o Finds “contact comfort” in the presence of a cloth “mother, but not a wire mothero Rhesus monkey infants do develop attachment bond with cloth mothers who provide tactile experience Even 2 years later, juveniles presented with their cloth mother will approach and cling- Contact comforto All mammals have a brain organized to support a mother-infant bond Mammalian mother = food + protectiono Primate mothers carry their infants with them Primate mother = food + protection + transport- Phyllis Dolhinow- Lessons from langur monkeyso When biological mother is removed from group cage, infant finds a new “mother”o Infant acts, new “mother” respondso New attachment bond can replace old attachment- Attachment with contact comfort is a feature of primateso Single birthso Constant carryingo Mother-careo Long-term bonds- Who can be a caretaker?o Many mammalian species use mother-only careo Among humans, research has shown that survival of children and reproductive success of mothers is improved with Father-care Grandparent-care Sibling-care (Akira, Zahra) Care by other extended kino Sarah Blaffer-Hry calls these “allomothers” and proposes that humans are “cooperative breeders”o Caretakers do not have to be biological relatives (Dora)o Caretaking of human immatures is a cognitive challenge- Salaam Bombay!o Bombay, Indiao Street children and how they provide social-emotional support for one anothero Problem-solving behavior in the face of poverty and illiteracyo Sex traffickingo Institutional careo Non-professional cast of street childreno Main characters: Krishna (12-14)- protagonist Chillum (18+)- drug dealer and addict Sweet Sixteen (16)- sold into prostitution Manju (8-10)- daughter of Rehka Rehka (30+)- prostitute and mother of Manju Baba (30+) drug dealer, pimp, father of Manjuo After killing someone and losing every relationship of meaning to him,Krishna sits in the street crying and winding up his spinning top- Barry Bogin’s “children” (age 3-7) cannot survive without adult provisioning and social support- “Juveniles” (7-12) are able to survive on the streets but they are focused on the immediate problems of the present and near future. They are stuck.- Even older children need parents because they need help in learning the skills and obtaining the education that will help them to a better life. They need guidance for longer life plans.- Time for School (2002-2004)o Follows 7 children from their first year of school until 2015 Afghanistan (Shugufa) Benin (Nanavi) Brazil (Jefferson) India (Neeraj) Japan (Ken) Kenya (Joab) Romania (Raluca)o The transfer of culture across generations through teaching and learning is a major form of human cooperation No other species does this as well as humans do this- Tomasello & Call, 1997o Human knowledge is a social-collective enterprise- What traits distinguish humans from all other species?o Bipedalism  handpower and tool useo Brain size  cognitive versatility (brainpower)o Speech/language  symbol power- Primate learning is an individual enterpriseo Primate parents don’t teach- How unique is human teaching?o Teaching requires actual efforts by adults or older juveniles to facilitate information transfer…merely being available for observationis not enough; teaching also requires… Deliberate modeling Active encouragement Exaggeration of the movements involved in the task to make it more obvious Simplification of the task to provided graded steps- Such behavior is rarely observed in non-human primates- The importance of the “juvenile stage” (middle childhood)o The period between the eruption of the first molar and pubertyo 5-7 year shifto Body Eruption of first molar Mid-growth spurt and then prolonged slow growth Adrenarche (adrenal androgens) Less susceptible to communicable diseaseso Brain EEG rhythms stabilize into an adult pattern Myelination is complete providing adult levels of axon conduction Cortical

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FSU ANT 2416 - Study Guide

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