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FSU CJE 3110 - Exam 5 Final exam

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Exam 5 Final exam CJE 3110 DoernerStressNo one definition which everyone would approve; Selye says it is "the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it." Grenick says it "occurs when a person perceives that he is unable to cope with the demands made upon him and when the consequences ofthis inability to cope are threatening"BurnoutOccurs when there is a constant disjunction between job demands and worker resources. As the gap widens, one becomes less effectiveEustressPositive stress (positive effects from it), such as with realistic training exercisesDistressNegative stress; the strain that develops as a person becomes more and more engulfed in his personal occupational role; produces several harmful effectsGeneral Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)Patterned response of an organism reacting to stress; includes 3 stages of alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustionAlarm reaction stage of GASTriggered by the perception of some stressful condition or event. Acceleration of hormones/chemicals, stimulates sympathetic system (heart and lungs), heart beats faster, breathing is shallower and quicker, glands activate to produce fuel for muscles, adrenaline kicks inResistance stage of GASThe body steps up hormone production to correspond tothe level of threat or attack until the organism is at its peak alertness. The final spurt of energy and execution of a massive task fit here.Exhaustion stage of GASBody runs out of fuel, physical reserves must recuperateor replenish themselves. Sleep and relaxation provide nutrition during this stage.GAS and eustressPeople undergoing eustress go through all three stages of the cycle regularly, welcoming the relaxation upon reaching exhaustionGAS and distressUnder distress, there is often not a long enough resting period which causes exhaustion to kick in sooner than itshould regularly. Constant distress reduces efficiency ofthe alarm stage.Intra-individual source of police stressStress varies from one person to the next- depends on individual's perception and other internal factorsType A personalityTremendous drive, high anxiety, desire to excel in all endeavors, more prone to ulcers and heart attacksType B personalityLess driven, more moderate in their work habits and living stylesInter-individual source of police stressStress from other people; medical conditions in particularOrganization source of police stressIncludes shift work, equipment, and citizen complaintsShift work stressLong shifts, unusual hours, breaks circadian rhythm so it's hard to adjust to, disrupts eating/sleeping habits. Shifts also rotate monthly, so that officers work the variety of shifts available.Fixed or permanent shiftsOfficers work a set tour of duty for an extended period of time, instead of rotationEquipment stressOften patrol cars have problems such as: interior lights failing, A/C not working, brakes failingCitizen complaint stressInternal Affairs, informal complaints that the commanding officers receive and addressEnvironmental source of police stressIncludes the community, CJ system, and constant threatof dangerCommunity stressOfficers feel rejected by the people they're helping, theykeep phone numbers unlisted, don't publicize their address and try to shield their families from the perceptions of the communityCJ System stressOfficers have to find time for court in between their long work hours, they don't trust the CJ system becauseof its heavy emphasis on technical and procedural aspects. Officers feel morally outrages when the system fails to punish criminals deserving of retributionThreat of danger stressConstant fear- death, assault. Fear of the unknown.Symbolic assailantYoung minority males in the more run-down areas of townConsequences of police stressMorbidity/mortality, alcohol abuse, suicide, marital tensionsMorbidityDisease and sicknessMortalityCauses of DeathOfficers and healthBeing an officer increases the odds of a premature death from heart disease or stomach cancers. Also, theytend to have poor eating habits (fast food and caffeine)Why do officers rely on alcohol as a remedy for their problems?1. Demands of the job (usually dealing with death/gruesome cases)2. Physical and social adjustments (not being on the same time schedule as others)Normal drinkerConsumes alcohol under typical circumstances and doesn't crave it when not drinkingAlcohol-dependent personDrinks daily but does not consider himself to be hooked on booze. He knows he drinks too much but thinks he can quit whenever he wants.AlcoholicHas left self-control, drinks excessively, alcohol dominates his lifeAre more officers killed by another or killed by themselves?ThemselvesTop 3 reasons for police suicide1. Death of child or spouse2. Loss of child or spouse through divorce3. Terminal illnessMarriage & officersKroes says that half to three-quarters of all police officers eventually go through divorce/separation. The Niederhoffers say that the rate of police divorce is no higher than the U.S. averageAlternative outlook on police stress- public opinionStress and its outcomes become equated with the incalculable sacrifices that conscientious and dedicated officers make. The police stress hypothesis is a potent propaganda device.Stress ManagementAny attempt to control or reduce the amount of stress a person experiencesThree types of stress managementEliminating stressors, learning to cope with stress, reaching out for help with stressWitness management unitsA witness can call the prosecutor's office the night before a trial to find out the status of the case (to prevent witnesses from showing up when trials have been put off)Stand-by statusThe officer provides a phone number and promises to appear in court within an hour after being notified (so he doesn't lose sleep waiting)Stress inoculationThe psychological approach to stress management that teaches people to recognize the signs of oncoming stress and to counter with relaxation techniquesPost-shooting traumaEmotional aftermath for an officer who uses fatal force in the line of dutyEarly warning programIdentifies problem-prone officers and marks them for participation in employee counseling; relies upon officermishapsWhy are officers reluctant to seek stress counseling?They are distrustful of outsiders and fear that the paper trail in counseling may haunt them laterWho polices the police?Agency Internal Affairs UnitState Licensing AuthorityFederal CourtsState CourtsPolicy GuidelinesNecessary to prevent 'unarticulated


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