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FSU BOT 3015 - Plants Study Guide: Test 1

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Plants Study Guide: Test 1Lecture 1- Importance of Plants: -Produce most of the oxygen we breathe- Produce most of the chemically stored energy we consume as food and burn for fuel. - Produce an assortment of useful compounds (medicine: herbs, spices: vanillin, cinnamon, vitamins: A (vegetables), B (cereals), C (fruits and vegetables), Drinks: caffeine (coffee and tea), Drugs: cocaine and morphine. )- Plants are totipotent (totipotency: the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism)- The more complex an organism is, the less ability it has to regenerate.- Each plant cell can regenerate a whole organism.- Hooke’s microscope- English microscopist, Robert Hooke first used the term “cell” to refer to the small chambers he saw in magnified slices of cork. - Plant Genetics and Breeding- Mendel’s studies of peas revealed the laws of inheritance.- Law of Segregation (“First Law”): When any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate so that eachgamete receives only one copy. A gamete will receive one allele or the other. - Law of Independent Assortment (“Second Law”): Allelesof different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation. - Good genes can be combined and bad genes can be eliminated. - Norman Boraug: Introduced new strains of wheat in Mexico. Plant breeder; crossed wheat and made hybrids.- Plant Genetics and Evolution: - McClintock: studied maize (corn) and revealed the presence of transposable elements. - Transposable elements: found in all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. They are mutagens and play role in evolution.- Plant Science: The world keeps growing and growing. An objective of plant science is to increase food production; need to increase food production by 70% in 40 years.- Due to water scarcity and economic struggles, plant growth is difficult.- Plant diseases also cause a problem. - Phytophthora infestans: cause of potato late blight, has re-emerged as a threat.- Puccinia graminis tritici: wheat stem rust fungus, has developed into a highly aggressive form.- Humans affect plant growth and success; Human life is disruptive of the plant community. - Ecology: Balance between different species in a community. - Plant Biotechnology and Modern Agriculture- Genetic modified crops: Insect resistant cotton; herbicide resistant soybean; Industrial materials (starch), Vaccine.- Importance of studying plants?- To better harness the ability of plants to provide us with food, medicines and energy.- To help conserve endangered plants and threatened environments- To learn fundamental principles of biology- Plant Cell: - Mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, ribosomes, cell membrane, golgi body.- Chloroplasts: factory of photosynthesis- Endosymbiosis: first proposed by Dr. Lynn Margulis; 16S rRNA sequence comparison shows chloroplasts arose from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont. - Evidence for Endosymbiotic origin of Plastids- 1.) arise only by division of other plastids- 2.) contain DNA for making some of their own proteins- 3.) Plastid DNA is circular, contains operons, and is close in sequence to bacterial DNA.- Aqueous plants, Land plants, Vascular plants, Seed plants, Flowering plantsLecture 2- The length of the branches in a phylogeny represents the evolutionary distance between organisms.- Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species- Linneaus’ two major contributions to plant classification: Invention of the binomial naming system, laid the foundation for current biological classification systems, classification of plants based on reproductive structures. Binomial: genus name + description - Electron microscope: Chatton 1937; added new details of cell structure; Kingdom Monera (bacteria)- Plants: Red algae, prasinophyte algae, land plants, charaphyte algae, chlorophyte algae, glaucophyte algae- Major groups of plants: Green algae (aq plants), Liverworts (land plants), Mosses, Club mosses (vascular plants), Ferns, Cone-bearing plants (seed plants), Grasses and broad leafed plants (flowering plants)- Green algae: gain of photosynthetic ability; Water grown, photosynthetic, single cell or multicellular, the origin of a chloroplast, gametophyte is dominant- Mosses and Liverworts: From aq to land plants; First land plants: dehydration tolerant, no water transport system- limited growth, Rhizoids but no root- limited growth, gametes are free swimming (moist area)- Club mosses and ferns: formation of the vascular tissue and root; first appearance of vascular tissue, have real roots, plants can be tall, gametes swim (moist area)- Pine Trees, Cycads, Spruce: Formation of seeds and pollen, vascular tissue, roots, sporophyte, gametes delivered in pollen by wind (can grow in dry environment), Embryo (next generation)- form as seeds on mother plants. - Garden plants, crop, fruit trees: Flowering plants; vascular tissue, roots, dominant sporophyte and pollen, gametes are distributed by pollen, Flowers help pollen distribution- by wind, insects, animals, seeds are enclosed in fruits that provide protection and facilitate dispersal, adapted to various growth conditions. - Three Domains of Life: Eukaryotes, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria- Four Kingdoms of Eukaryotes: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists*Protista is an artificial taxon because it contains organisms that are more closely related to organisms in other kingdoms than to other members of Protista. Plants: all land plants, mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants…Animals: mammals, humans, arthropods, cnidaria…Protista: Radiolaria,…Fungi: mushrooms, morels, truffles.- Nucleic acid sequencing: analyzing the sequences of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA provided the first evidence that the living world is divided into three major groups, or domains- Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes; Nucleic acid helps to understand evolutionary relationships, and study evolution in different lineages. By analyzing nucleic acids, new species have been found. Lecture 3- Monocots: Grasses, Lillies, Orchids, Palms. - Dicots: Sunflowers, roses, oaks, mutards. - Angiosperms: 2 major groups: Monocots (1 cotyledon) and Dicots(2 cotyledons)- Basic Flower Parts: 1) Sepal, 2) Petal, 3) Stamen (composed of a filament and anther), 4) Carpel (composed of ovary, style, stigma)- Flower parts come in whorls (ring of leaves): 1) Sepals-calyx- outermost whorl of the flower, consists of the sepal, the calyx encloses and protects the


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