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FSU CCJ 4938r - CHAPTER 1

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CHAPTER 11 what factors led to the explosive growth of digital crime over the past few decades?- The explosive growth of the internet, improvements in networking, digital imaging.2. Describe some of the most common forms of digital crime.- Hacking and thefts are the best documented offenses although other forms have been emergingsuch as fraud through investment web sites, identity theft, and telecommunications.4. Why is the number of cyber victims growing?- As computers become increasingly integrated in day to day lives and as more people use the internet, cyber victimization will continue to increase.5. Why is computer crime severely underreported?- Mainly because they are never reported in the first place.6. What are the 4 categories of computer crime? Give examples of the types of crimes that fall under each category.- The computer as a target: the computer itself is the target, includes denial of service attacks or the alteration of data. The attack seeks to deny the user or owner of the system access to their data or computer. Computer vandalism- intruder removes valuable information from the computer- The computer as the instrument of the crime: computer is used to gain some other criminal objective.- The computer as incidental to crime: The computer is not the primary instrument of thecrime, it simply facilitates it. Money laundering, criminal enterprise, child pornography, and luring victims into compromising situations.- Crimes associated with the prevalence of the computer: Targets of these types of crimes are mainly the industry itself, but also includes its customers and even people who have avoided information technology. Intellectual property violations, component theft, counterfeiting, identity theft, and a variety of corporate offenses.CHAPTER 21. Define the concepts of information warfare and cyber terrorism.- Information warfare: The gathering or use of information to gain an advantage over another party. Six components: psychological operations, electronic warfare, military deception, physical destruction, security measures, and information attacks.- Cyber terrorism: A premeditated attack or threat of attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data that can result in violence against civilian targets.2. What are the six components of information warfare?- Psychological operations, electronic warfare, military deception, physical destruction, security measures, and information attacks.-3. What are the four major categories of cyber terrorism and/or information warfare?- Infrastructure attacks: Designed to destroy a system that contains critical data- Information attacks: Focused on demolishing or altering the content of electronic files and computer systems.- Technological facilitation: use of cyber communication to distribute and coordinate plans for a terrorist attack, incite an attack, or assist in terrorism.- Promotion: fundraising, solicitation, and recruitment.4. Define critical infrastructure, and give some examples of the types of systems vulnerable to cyber terrorism and information warfare within the United States.- Critical infrastructure: Our large scale economy and operations.- Telecommunications, banking and finance, electrical power, oil and gas distribution and storage, water supply, transportation, emergency services, andgovernment services.5. Name and describe various types of information attacks.- Web site defacement: changing how the web site looks with a negative slogan.- Cyber plagues, viruses and worms: Virus is code that attaches itself to other instructions within a computer. Worms are programs that reproduce themselves over a computer network by breaking into computers.- Distributed denial of service attacks: An attempt by a cyber-attacker to prevent legitimate usage of service.- Unauthorized intrusions6. What are stenography and cryptography?- Stenography: Data hiding includes an assortment of methods for secret communication that can conceal the fact that a message even exists at all. Taking a piece of information and hiding it within another piece of data.- Cryptography: Method to secure and protect information from unwanted eyes. An encryption program scrambles information in a controlled manner through the use of a cryptographic key.7. What has the role of china been in recent cyber-attacks against the United States? They have special hacker forces to engage the United States in online or cyber warfare and apparently have already used them although there is no evidence.CHAPTER 31. According to choice theory, why do individuals commit digital crime?- They weigh the costs and benefits.2. What are the major assumptions of deterrence theory?- Offenders commit crimes because they choose to do so, if the risks outweigh the benefits, then the person will not commit the act. GENERAL DETERRANCE- seeks to discourage would be offenders form committing criminal acts because of the threat of punishment. SPECIFIC DETERRENCE- Designed to impose sanction on a convicted offender in order to prevent them from continuing to commit criminal acts.3. What are the five modes of adaptation? Which is most likely to lead to the commission of digital crime?- Conformity: A conformist both accepts the cultural goal of economic success and accepts the institutionalized means to obtain it.- Ritualism: A ritualist rejects the cultural goal of economic success but accepts the institutionalized means to obtain the cultural goal.- Innovation: An innovator accepts the goal of economic success but rejects the institutionalized means to obtain it.- Retreatism: A retreatist rejects both the cultural goal of economic success and institutionalized means to obtain it.- Rebellion: A rebel rejects both the cultural goal and means but substitute’s new goals and means to obtain them.4. What are the nine propositions presented by Sutherland?- Criminal behavior is learned- Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.- The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs with intimate personal groups.- When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (1) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometime very complicated, sometimes very simple; and (2) the specific directions of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.- The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codesas favorable or unfavorable.- A person becomes criminal


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