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FSU SPA 2001 - Ch. 1: A Journey from Student to Professional

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September 1, 2011Communication Disorders SpecialistsAudiologistsSpeech-Language Pathologists (SPLs)Speech, Language, and Hearing ScientistsProfessional AidesWhat Audiologists DoMeasure hearing abilityIdentify, assess (test), manage, and prevent disorders of hearing and balanceDetermines what environmental adjustments need to be madeEvaluate and assist those with auditory processing disorders (APD)APD: problems processing auditory information (i.e. cocktail party effect)Select, fit and dispense hearing aids and other amplification devicesTreats hearing loss  related to diminished auditory signalWhere Audiologists WorkEducational settingsClinics and hospitals (primarily)Government agencies (affiliated with VA hospitals)Industry (hearing aid companies)Audiologists are independent professionals; no prescription from another healthcare provider is neededAudiologist CredentialsCurrently: Master’s DegreePrescribed study including clinical practice*Beginning in 2012: DoctorateAUD: minimum degree requiredAfter formal training:Additional clinical experience (CFY)Pass national exam (ASHA)ASHA CCC-A : Certificate of Critical CompetenceNational levelCFY: clinical fellowship yearState license (some states have reciprocity, some do not)What SLPs DoIdentify, assess, treat, and prevent speech and language disorders (Speech: articulation, voice quality, stuttering; Language: formulating ideas/thoughts in written and oral forms)Receptive (how people understand what they hear) and expressive (how people express their ideas)Multiple modalities: speech, writing, picture, manualParticipate in assessment and treatment of swallowing disordersModify a regional or foreign dialect (modify and accent)  “selective services”Where SLPs WorkSchool systems (primarily)HospitalsClinicsRehab centersNursing homesSLPs are independent professionals; no prescription from another healthcare provider is needed (although with insurance, doctors need to sign off on prescriptions)SLP CredentialsMaster’s Degree (minimum)Prescribed study including clinical practiceAfter formal training:Additional clinical experience (CFY)Pass national exam (ASHA)Public school certificationASHA CCC-SLPState licenseSpeech, Language, and Hearing ScientistsUsually have a doctoral degreeWork in universities, government agencies, industry, research centers, and clinicsExtend knowledge of human communication processes and disordersSpeech Scientists: explore anatomy, physiology, and physics of speech-sound production. Structural (how things work)Language Scientists: investigate nature of language disorders in children and adults. Investigate normal language behaviorHearing Scientists: investigate nature of sound, noise, and hearingProfessional AidesBachelors degrees (minimum)Titles varyParaprofessionalsSLPAsAudiology assistantsSLPAs may perform screening, do clerical work, assist in preparation of materialsAudiology aides may perform screenings, calibrate instruments, do clerical workAides work only with supervision — cannot diagnose, provide treatmentRelated Professions (a team approach, regardless of setting)Family members (must be involved with kids)Regular and special educatorsPsychologistsSocial workersDoctors and other medical personnelOccupational therapistsPhysical therapistsMusic therapistsPhysicistsEngineersService Through the Lifespan (SLPs and Audiologists)Infants and toddlersScreening important: About 2% have some disabilityHearing loss most prevalentDevelopmental delays, physical problemsEarly Intervention (EI) & Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)PreschoolersContinuation of services or identification of new childrenPrevention in language/learning disabilitiesSchool-ageArticulation problems, drooling/swallowing issues, dyslexia, ocular implantsFull range of communication/swallowing issuesCommunication disorders often negatively impact educationYoung Adults/other IndividualsTraumatic brain injury (TBI)— bike/motorcycle/car accidents, fallsRehabilitative effortsOver age 55Stroke, dementia, neurological disordersCommunication and swallowing abilities may be affectedAge-related hearing loss25%may have hearing loss requiring assessment/treatmentStrive to improve their quality of lifeEvidence-Based PracticeEverything is supported by research (journals, studies)Clinical decision makingScientific evidenceClinical experienceClient needsEfficacy: results expected if ideal conditions are present in the officeEffectiveness: results expected if average conditions are present in the officeEfficiency: how quick are the methods to bring the best positive changesProfessional OrganizationsASHA— founded in 1925 — governing bodyPromotes: scientific study, quality clinical services, high ethical standards, advocacy for those with communication disorders (legistation)Related professional associationMany SLPs and audiologists belong to multiple organizations (see text Fig. 1.1)ASHA Code of EthicsGovern and discipline anyone who violates codes of conduct and ethical behaviorHistorical PerspectiveThe first American “speech correctionists”Educators and others in helping/medical professionsThe American Academy of Speech Correction est. in 1925Precursor to ASHAPromoted scientific inquiry and set standards for training and practiceAudiology originated in 1920sInterest surged in 1940s due to WWII vetsClinical/medical backgroundSLPs originated from psychology/linguistics (stuttering, fluency) — less respected than audiologistsCivil Rights movement beginning in 1960sSparked legislative action aimed at individuals with handicaps — equal assetsSeptember 6, 2011Human CommunicationHumans are social animalsCommunicationExchange of ideas between sender(s) (speakers) and receiver(s) (listeners)Multiple processes influenced by multiple factorsEffective communication: satisfies needs and wants, reveal feelings, share informationSociolinguisticsSocial context is not a vacuumHow cultural identity, setting, and participants influence communicationCultural IdentityLanguage and cultural communities; age, genderDifferent languages  cultural breakdownSettings and participants influence communication (i.e. guy at a bar, mom at home, attorney and judge in a courtroom)  different language usedMeans of Communication1.) LanguageA socially shared tool, rule-governed, generative, and dynamic. Symbols are arbitrary but represent somethingSpecies specific capacity that only humans haveGenerative: each utterance is freshly createdFinite set of rules


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