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FSU PET 3322 - Exam IV Study Guide

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Anatomy and Physiology IExam IV Study GuideThe Respiratory System Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System 1. List the structures and functions of the nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses. *images p.920-921Nose: specialized organ at the entrance of the respiratory system; divided into an external portion and an internal portion (nasal cavity).♦ External nose: portion of the nose visible on the face. Bony framework: frontal bone, nasal bones, and maxillae. Cartilaginous framework: septal nasal, lateral nasal cartilages, & alar cartilages. External nares (nostrils): two openings on the undersurface of the external nose.  Three functions of interior structures:• Warming, moistening, and filtering incoming air• Detecting olfactory stimuli• Modifying speech vibrations as they pass through the large, hollow resonating chambersNasal Cavity: a large space in the anterior aspect of the skull that lies inferior to the nasal bone and superior to the oral cavity.♦ Internal nares: two openings that allow the nasal cavity to communicate with the pharynx.♦ Lateral walls: formed by the ethmoid, maxillae, lacrimal, palatine, and inferior nasal conchae bones.♦ Nasal vestibule: the anterior portion of the nasal cavity, just inside the nostrils; surrounded by cartilage.♦ Nasal septum: a vertical partition; divides the nasal cavity into right & left sides.♦ Vestibule: where air first enters the nostrils; lined by skin containing coarse hairs. Filters out large dust particles.♦ Nasal conchae: (superior, middle, & inferior) projections that form three shelves; extend out of each lateral wall of the nasal cavity. Superior, middle, & inferior meatuses: groovelike passageways formed by the nasal conchae that subdivide each side of the nasal cavity.♦ Functions:  Arrangement of conchae & meatuses • increases surface area in the internal nose • prevents dehydration by trapping water droplets during exhalation blood in the capillaries• warms inhaled air mucus secreted by the goblet cells & nasolacrimal ducts• moistens the air • traps dust particles cilia move the mucus and trapped dust particles toward the pharynxParanasal Sinuses: cavities in certain cranial and facial bones lined with mucous membranes that are continuous with the lining of the nasal cavity.♦ Produce & drain mucus♦ Serve as resonating chambers for sound as we speak or sing2. Describe the structures of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea.Pharynx: (throat) a funnel-shaped tube about 13 cm long that starts at the internal nares & extends to the level of the cricoid cartilage.♦ Functions as a passageway for air and food, provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils.♦ Nasopharynx: superior portion of the pharynx; extends to the soft palate. Soft palate: forms the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth; arch-shaped muscular partition between the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid): contained in the posterior wall.♦ Oropharynx: intermediate portion of the pharynx; lies posterior to the oral cavity and extends from the soft palate inferiorly to the level of the hyoid bone. Fauces: the opening from the mouth; common passageway for food, air, and drink. Palatine & lingual tonsils♦ Laryngopharynx: inferior portion of the pharynx; begins at the level of the hyoid bone. At its inferior end, it opens into the esophagus. At its anterior end, opens into the larynx.Larynx: (voice box) a short passageway that connects the paryngopharynx with the trachea; lies in the midline of the neck, anterior to the esophagus. ♦ Cavity of the larynx: the space that extends from the entrance into the larynx down to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage.♦ Vestibule of the larynx: (true vocal cords) the portion of the cavity of the larynx above the vocal cords.♦ Thyroid cartilage: (Adam’s apple) consists of two fused plates of hyaline cartilage that form the anterior wall of the larynx; triangular shape.♦ Thyrohyoid membrane: the ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.♦ Epiglottis: a large, leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage that is covered with epithelium.  Elevation of the pharynx widens it to receive food or drink. Elevation of the larynx causes the epiglottis to move down & form a lid over the glottis.♦ Glottis: consists of a pair of folds of mucous membrane, the true vocal cords in the larynx, and the rima glottidis. The closing of the pharynx in this way during swallowing routes liquids and foods into the esophagus & keeps them out of the larynx & airways.♦ Cricoid cartilage: a ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx.♦ Arytenoid cartilages: (paired) triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior, superior border of the cricoid cartilage.♦ Corniculate cartilages: (paired) horn-shaped pieces of elastic cartilage; located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.♦ Cuneiform cartilages: (paired) club-shaped elastic cartilages anterior to the corniculate cartilages; support the vocal folds and lateral aspects of the epiglottis.Trachea: (windpipe) a tubular passageway for air that is about 12 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter; located anterior to the esophagus & extends from the laryx to the superior border of T5 where it divides into right & left primary bronchi.♦ The layers of the tracheal wall, from deep to superficial, are: Mucosa: consist of an epithelial layer of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium & an underlying layer of lamina propria that contains elastic & reticular fibers. Submucosa: consists of areolar connective tissue that contains seromucous glands & their ducts. Hyaline cartilage: 16-20 incomplete, horizontal rings; resember the letter C, are stacked one above another, & are connected together by dense connective tissue. Adventitia: composed of areolar connective tissue.♦ Trachealis muscle: transverse smooth muscle fibers; allow the diameter of the trachea to change subtly during inhalation & exhalation.3. Explain the structure of the lungs and the vascular and neural networks that supply them. Lungs: paired cone-shaped organs in the thoracic cavity; separated from each other by the heart and other structures of the mediastinum.♦ The three membranous layers:♦ Base: the broad inferior portion of the lung;


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