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FSU ASH 3100 - Post-Dynasty China

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Post-Dynasty ChinaI. The Fall of the DynastyA. Emperor Puyi and Prince Zun- Is just a child - Puyi- His father prince Zun would rule as his regent and younger brother- Prevalent at this time was revolutionary movements, they start to spring up in the later half of the 1800’s, had a lot of groups who were beginning to reject the dynasty, such as Marxist groups, anarchists, constitutional reformersB. Sun Yatsen- well known figure of modern china, known as the “Father” of modern china- he was born in canton to a peasant family- born in 1866, cusp of the Taiping rebellion, economically china is a mess, a chaotic time- opportunity to live in Hawaii where an older brother of his already lived, lived here for 3 years, received a western education there, - he learned about American democracy because Hawaii was not a state yet, how our system worked- introduced to Christianity which he adopted- proved himself to be a natural at language, picked up English easily- returned to china after three years, and he would actually move to Hong Kong to pursue a medical degree, which he received, referred to as Doctor Sun Yatsen- Hong Kong was a British colony, but his medical education was not seen as up to par so he wasn’t able to practice medicine in Hong Kong, British wouldn’t hire him- returns to main land, this is where the revolutionary movements were heating up due to china’s disarray- 1895 – end of sino-japanese war, he joins one of these revolutionary movements- sun Yatsen was a visionary, was the best politician but the man who had the vision of where china could be- his vision, combined a lot of traditional Chinese with what he had learned about the American system while in Hawaii- he would be one of the revolutionary that advocates the over throw of the dynasty in his place he envisioned a republic, a constitutional republic with the freedoms and guarantees we have here- 1905 – he co-founded a group known as Tongmenghui translation would be “the united league,” revolutionary opposition group to call for the over throw of the qing- the Japanese were working with sun Yatsen and were behind him in forming this group- Sun Yatsen envisioned that if there was merely a spark all of china would follow suit, the domino effect would take place, province after province would join the revolution- 1905-1911 C. Tongmenghui (Guomindang – 1912)a. Domino Effect- 1905-1911- this group was responsible for staging multiple revolutions, - the domino effect never kicked in- instead Suns followers faced persecution and he went into exile multiple times during this period- planned for a major revolution to take place in cantonD. October Revolution (1911)- march of 1911, revolution was staged and still no domino effect- Sun Yatsen fled to Japan in exile- No domino effect did not mean things were stable and this was shown in October, there is still plotting for revolutionary movement and in this time- Revolutionaries were making bombs one of them exploded accidently that brought the police in to investigate and the revolutionaries had no choice but to rise up because their activities were exposed- Revolutionaries here were going to rise up- Units of the military defect and join the revolution- The navy, naval commanders were unhappy about Beijing they would join the revolution- The spontaneous revolution is the one that succeeds, it ignited all across china- Provincial governors eventually siding with the revolution- Imperial control was slipping away as the whole country joins forces with the revolution- Dynasty only had one hope, one man that had the ability to maybe stop this, he was Yuan ShikaiE. Yuan Shikai and the Beiyang Army- he was an extremely powerful man- commander of the Beiyang army- it was a new army after the Sino-Japanese war, the Bannerman army fell apart so the dynasty was trying to form an army that would be loyal and it was based right around Beijing and the 5 provinces around Beijing- this was the imperial army now, it had the latest technology and training, the army to protect Beijing- he headed this army, and also been the governor general of the province that surrounds Beijing, this man would be the most powerful man in the country short of the emperor- Hebei, that was the province- The catch with him, he was so powerful he feared his power, which forced him to retire, he was too powerful to kill him so he forced him to retire- But now Sun Yatsen who is in the US when the October revolution rushed back to china, and sun Yatsen was appointed the provincial president- Li Yuanhong appointed as the provisional VP- The revolution is really taking hold, declare Nanking capital of the revolution- That army was only going to fight for Yuan Shikai- Yuan Shikai was an opportunist, he said well sure ill fight for you if you make me the prime minister of the imperial cabinet- Had no ability to negotiate at this point so he agreed, Yuan Shikai would lead the Beiyang army against the revolutionaries and his army was definitely better trained and equip than the revolutionaries- Beiyang army was reaching success with putting down the revolutionary movement- This considers Sun Yatsen, the revolutionary had to succeed, to Sun Yatsen sends an offering to Yuan Shikai- Sun said Shikai could take his position as provincial president, if he would join forces with the revolutionaries- Shikai was an opportunist, he could see in the future that the dynasty days were done so it made more sense to join forces with the revolutionaries he would be the head of the government that would be put in place of the dynasty- Threw his weight behind revolution and in fact he would negotiate with Prince Zun for the emperors abdication- February 12, 1912 – boy emperor would abdicate the thrown, he was five, negotiated by Prince Zun- Imperial china came to an end, 2,000 year of imperial tradition now over- Opportunity to implement on china to be this constitutional republic based on democracy- Yuan Shikai is the Provincial President and he was suppose to abide by the terms set forth by revolutionaries, in 1912 with theend of the dynasty, Guomindang came into an official party, or the “nationalist party”- This point on these terms nationalist party and Guomindang are the same thing- Shikai also agreed to accept the terms of GMD, he would abide by there constitution, the government would be of there design, capital would be in Nanking, he felt the capital was more self serving than anything, but argued


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