FSU ASH 3100 - History of Asia Final Study Guide

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History of Asia Final Study GuideWhat do woodblocks illustrate about the role of the emperor?- The woodblocks illustrate that the role of the emperor was to be presented as symbols of the nation’s progressive “Westernization” and modernization. In the late 1880s, woodblock artists churned out many prints celebrating the imperial family, always imagining them in Western attire. What does Dower mean by the phrase, “Throwing off Asia”?- When Dower uses the phrase, “Throwing off Asia,” he is making a reference to the Sino-Japanese War and it’s calamities that “threw off Asia”. With hundreds of thousands deployed, and tens of thousands dead, it was a vital war whose severity took Asia by surprise. Why does the Bakafu government fall?- The Bakafu government fell in 1868 due to the Meiji Restoration, which extinguished the Bakafu’s authority and returned political power to the emperor. This happened primarily because of the Shogunates view that Japanese society was almost perfect, especially being isolationist. However, in 1852, Commander Perry of the US sailed into Japan and was able to ignore the Japanese threats due to their advancement in military technology. He was able to demand a treaty which entailed trading rights, which was also important because it showed that the shogunate was wrong wit his policies of isolation. What were the terms of the Harris treaty and why did they matter?- The Harris treaty was signed on July 29, 1858. It opened the ports of Kanagawa and four other Japanese cities to American trade and granted extraterritoriality to foreigners, among a number of trading stipulations. The ramifications of the Harris treaty were salient because trade between America and Japan became possible which broke a huge barrier in Japans isolationist standpoint. What were Fukuzawa’s writings on education reform, Western science, Japanese culture, and the role of women?- Fukuzawa’s writings focused on the importance of understanding the principles of equality and opportunity and that study was the key to greatness. He was an avid supporter of education and believed in a firm mental foundation through educationand studiousness. His most lasting principle he wrote about was “national independence through personal independence.” Through personal independence, an individual does not have to depend on the strength of another. Incorporated lots of ideas of “civilization” into his writing, emphasizing that people could find the answer to their life or their present situation from acting civilized and furthermore that the difference between the weak and the powerful and large was just a matter of difference between their knowledge and education. Personally I’d label him as a “put down your arms, lift up your pen” kind of guy. What changed after 1868?- After 1868, imperial rule was restored to Japan under Emperor Meiji. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Carter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan’s political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period, and the beginning of the Meiji period. What happened during the Macartney mission?- The Macartney Mission was a British embassy to China in 1793. The goal of the embassy was to convince Emperor Qianlong of China to ease restrictions on trade between Great Britain and China by allowing Great Britain to have a permanent embassy in Beijing, own a possession of a ‘small unfortified island near Chusan for the residence of British traders, storage of goods, and outfitting of ships,’ and to reduce tariffs on traders in Guangzhou. The embassy was ultimately not successful in its primary objectives due to a result of competing worldviews that were uncomprehending and to some extent incompatible. How did Qianlong respond to the British?- He announced that the he did not have any need for any goods and services that the British could provide and the British should recognize that the he was far greater then them. The British trade ambassadors in China were forced to leave because they refused to bow down to the Emperor on command. Under “All the Tea in China,” what does Elliot say about the sale of trade with China? How China tries to regulate trade and why? - He describes the ritualistic nature of China in trade, since countries had to use the “tribute system” to trade with China. He also explains how China treated respectful nations with generosity pertaining to trade. As the Opium War broke out, China was no longer on top of the world. They used trade regulations to try and show their superior attitude towards the Westerners and how they could manipulate the trade to their best interest while disregarding the concerns of foreign traders. What was Warren Hastings and Lord Cornwallis significance in British-Indian relations?- Warren Hastings:- Hastings’ contribution to British-Indian relations was mostly administrative. He was sent as governor-general, and for twelve years, under nearly impossible conditions, he implemented many pivotal reforms and fought two major wars. He ended up leaving the administration of the East India Company much better then he found it, yet was ridiculed by those who were suspicious of corruption; despite the fact they had no idea of the conditions he was forced to work under. - Lord Cornwallis:- Appointed in February 1786 to serve as both Commander-in-chief of British India and Governor of the Presidency of fort William. He oversaw the consolidation of British control over much of peninsular India, setting the stage for the British Raj. He was also instrumental in enacting administrative and legal reforms that fundamentally altered civil administration and land management practices in India. According to historian Jerry Dupont, Cornwallis was responsible for laying the foundation for British rule throughout India and setting standards for the services, courts, and revenue collection that remained remarkably unaltered almost to the end of the British Era. What was the East India Company Raj? - East India Company Raj refers to the rule or dominion for the British East India Company on the Indian subcontinent. This is variously believed to have commenced either in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominions to the company, or in 1772, when the Company established a capital in Calcutta, appointed its first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, and became

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