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[ April 1, 2013 ] Post-Dynasty ChinaI. Fall of the Dynasty:Opium Wars: West imposed its will on China, China spirals down... It looked fairly backwards compared to the west. Conservative Confucian reform, 100 days reform, but still, China failed to reform itself. Boxer rebellion in 1900. Empress died in 1908, she had hand-picked her own successor. A child, Emperor Puyi, was a baby at the time he was chosen. His father, Prince Zun, would rule for him as a regent since he was so young. Revolutionary movements spring up in the latter half of the 1800s. A lot of groups reject the dynasty. Marxist groups, anarchists, Constitutional reformers, etc. Sun Yatsen: 'the father of Modern China'. Born in 1866, when China is in an economic mess / chaotic time. When he was 13 he lived in Hawaii with his older brother, for three years, received western Education, learned about American democracy (at the time, Hawaii not a U.S. state), introduced to Christianity (which he adopted), and picked up English quite easily. Moves back to Hong Kong to pursue Medical degree. He wasn't allowed to practice medicine in Hong Kong, so he returned to main land China, which was still in disarray. In 1895, with the end of the Sino-Japanese War, he joined a revolutionary movement. He had a vision of what China could be: Traditional China + what he learned about the American system in Hawaii. Advocated the overthrow of the dynasty, and wanted to replace it with a constitutional republic similar to what we have in the U.S. 1905: he co-founds the Tongmenghiu, the 'united league', a revolutionary opposition group calling for the overthrow of the Qing. Japanese worked with Sun Yatsen and helped him form the group. Domino Effect theory: city after city would join the revolution. Between 1905 and 1911, this group was responsible for staging multiple revolutions. But the domino effect never kicked in, never worked out for Yatsen. Instead, Sun's followers faced persecution; Sun went into exile multiple times during this period. In March of 1911, these revolutionaries plan a major revolution to take place in Canton, but still no domino effect. Sun fled to Japan in exile. October Revolution: 1911 - revolutionaries made bombs, one exploded accidentally, brought police in to investigate, they had no choice but to rise up because their activities had been exposed. Units of the military defect and join the revolution. Naval commanders unhappy with Beijing also join the revolution. Sparks all over the nation as the revolution ignited. Dynasty had one man who could have done something about the revolutions, Yuan Shikai. Commander of the Beiyang Army, a new Army created after the Sino-Japanese War based in and around Beijing and its 5 surrounding provinces. This is the Imperial Army. Yuan Shikai had also been the Governor-General of the province that Beijing is located in. The man that controlled that province would be the most powerful man in the country, other than the Emperor. Yuan Shikai was so powerful, that Prince Zun, acting as Puyi’s regent, forced him to retire in fear of his growing power. Sun Yatsen was appointed the provisional President. Li Yuanhong appointed as the provisional Vice President. Yatsen declared Nanking as the capital of the revolution. End point for the dynasty, the Revolution had sprung. Prince Zun asks Yuan Shikai to come back, control the army. Yuan Shikai was an opportunist; he agreed to fight 'if they made him the Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet.' Prince Zun agreed.Yuan Shikai and Beiyang Army vs. Revolutionaries. Beiyang Army starts to put down the movement. Sun Yatsen sends out an offering to Shikai. Yuan could take his position as provisional president. Yuan agrees to aid the revolution, negotiates with Prince Zun for the emperor's abdication. February 12, 1912: the boy Emperor (Puyi) abdicates the throne. The end of Imperial China / ends over 2,000 years of tradition. II. Republic of China:*1912, the Tongmenghiu transition from opposition group to an official party, the Guomindang (GMD), which is synonymous with Nationalists. Sometimes it is translated as Kuomintang (KMT). Yuan Shikai is the provisional president; he is supposed to abide by the Guomindang constitution. The capital was supposed to be in Nanking. Yuan Shikai took issue with moving the capital; he argued that China was not stable enough to move the capital. Thus the capital remains in Beijing for 'stability'. Then, Yuan Shikai realized he had been duped. The Guomindang Constitution declared elections for a National Assembly. The Lead Party in the Assembly would appoint the premier (*similar to Britain's Prime Minister) and the Assembly would elect the president. According to the Guomindang Constitution, the president has no power; the power is in the hands of the Premier. Yuan Shikai is now no more than a powerless figure-head. 1912 Elections for the Natl. Assembly, the Guomindang gets the majority vote, thus they get to appoint the Premier. The man who was supposed to be Premier got assassinated en route to Beijing. Yuan Shikai never admitted it, but he ordered the assassination of the Premier-to-be. Guomindang realized he was behind the assassination. Guomindang rallies revolutionary army to challenge Yuan Shikai. Condemn Shikai for 'betraying the revolution'. However, the Beiyang Army, which was much stronger, put down the upheaval by the Guomindang army. Guomindang army is defeated. Members are hunted down, killed, imprisoned. Sun Yatsen went back into exile. Shikai banned the Guomindang, making it an illegal party. He removed Guomindang members from the Assembly. In 1913, Yuan Shikai became the official president. Held an election, manipulated the government, in the Assembly to officially 'elect' him the President. He gets rid of the Assembly, writes his own constitution with the Presidency at 10 year terms, and he could appoint his successor. Republic falls apart before it even became a Republic. By 1915, Yuan Shikai was the man in charge and no one under him had any sort of real power. Li Yuanhong is still the Vice President, with no power. He had never been part of the Guomindang. International community recognizes Shikai as the legitimate ruler. He consolidated his rule through policies & reforms. Yuan Shikai did not like the 10 year term restriction; he decided he wanted to be Emperor. The people said 'no'. Even the provincial leadership, comprised of military governors that he had appointed, rejected his

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FSU ASH 3100 - Post-Dynasty China

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