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FSU ASH 3100 - Islam Arrives in India

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Islam Arrives in IndiaIslamic order there was social mobility, was appealing to those in a rigid caste systemConverts had a deal that could work in the other direction as wellTheir relationship is not overly favorable, had their own traditions didn’t need new onesIsland in India breaks the rule in that it was very harsh at timesBreaks the rule as the spread of Islam as a whole, Islam was forced on the people and the rule would be incredibly brutalTumil is not incorporated into our original dynasties, in the southern part they had their own dynasties, and trade by the way of seas, a lot of economic contact with the Arab worldWhen we see Islam spread in to south east Asia specifically Indonesia it was spread by the Indians not the Arabs, the southern tip of India brought it here, spread it peacefully through economic interactionI. Three Phases of Muslim EnroachmentIndians were not able to fight this offBecause they were divided, we didn’t have a central kingdom or a large dynasty with a large army to combat these forces it was too vulnerable too fractured =Caste system our warriors were coming from one caste only, kashatriya much lower in numbers than the rest of the majority populationThose Rajput armies are going to be a lot smaller, not unified, not able to put up enough resistancea. Umayyad Caliphate – 7th – 8th (CE)took place during the major expansion, came by way of sea, settled in the western part, presence for a 100 years, but we don’t see a major dynasty formed, not a lot of power, we see them withdraw and not much was left behind1. Turks from Ghazni – 10th – 11thModern day Afghanistan, kingdom of Ghazni, this area was very poor, very harsh living, very tribal a lot of conflict going on between the tribes, leadership fluctuating frequently, they were interested in the wealth of india, they would launch a couple feeler campaigns, 989, and in 991, to determine the strength of those in india, determine vulnerabilities that might exist, they showed that the indians were indeed very good fighters but they were vulnerable because they lacked unity which could be exploited2. Mahmud of Ghazni (997-1030)3. going to take on the title of “idol breaker”4. in 997 first of a series of campaigns against the Indians, 17 successful invasions which is a world record, north east section5. recent convert to islam6. declared a jihad against the Indians, the paganism, most scholars believed he was after indias wealth7. but in declaring it a jihad, it gave it religious legitimacy8. he was diligent in his effort to destroy this indian paganism, as he saw it9. 33 years 17 invasions into india and they were particularly brutal10. looked upon as a demon, this is what starts the bad relationship between these two groups, he was a menaceJihad: Kanauj, Somnath, and JauharKanauj – parsha Buddhist capital, be destroyed, see hundred of temples destroyed, 1018Somnath – 1025, move into here and it was known as a great hindu city, dedicated to shiva, his forces came in determined to destroy paganism, the temple had a huge temple of shiva inside, said he destroyed this temple himself and inside it was filled with jewels, diamonds, gold and silver, all taken back to Ghazni and enriching it for sure, this is where he gets his title idol breakerestimated 30,000-50,000 people were killed in the destruction of Somnath, when his forces came to the next cityJauhar – a lesson had been learned about the destructive capabilities of his forces, in this city the woman and children and the elderly all went to their own deaths in fire, seen that going to ones death at his own will, was much better than having the woman and children brought back to Ghazni and sold into slavery or the royal realm, rape,1027 captured most of this north eastern part, incorporated into the Ghazni kingdom, died in 1030 and his successors weren’t interested in continuing these campaigns, so this area is technically under authority of the Ghazni kingdom, and the Rajput’s would pay tribute, until they have an internal challengerGhaznavid Empire (997-1187 – India only)b. Turks from Ghorcome under attack internally from the region of ghor, go after capital of Ghazni and Lahore the other capital end the Ghazni ruleMuhammad Ghori (1187-1206)wanted more than the first ruler, he wasn’t looking at trying to invade and conquer all of india, this guy is he wants to incorporate india into his kingdom not just part for wealth accumulationthis time going to face opposition, four Rajput kingdom united to ward off this threat, and after years of campaigning, finally defeat the rajputs and move into the interior of india, 1992 defeated them 1193 on their way to delhihe did not intend to stay in india, he intended to rule from his base in Afghanistan, the capital of ghazni would still be the capital but he left behind a general a very trusted general to rule over delhi and maintain his authority there,Qub-ud-Din Aibak (1206-1210)One his generals, he was once a slave but scholars debate that, he was highly favored by Muhammad and more so than his own sons and other generals, at a time when there is a lot of in fighting and backstabbing you can imagine one who is chosen above the others is going to become targeted by his peers, he is in control of delhi he is continuing Muhammad ghoris rule, but many of those generals were jealous, they wanted to try and bring them down and cause them discontent, started to spread rumors that he wasn’t ruling on Muhammad attent anymore completely ignoring his orders, Muhammad was surprised and decided to investigate himself so he traveled to delhi and he put a peer in court and was disguised so he could see what he was actually doing when it was time to come out he stood in front of the throne he said the throne belonged to his master and all order given are given on his behalf, he was not a trader he was completely loyal, he had realized that he had been lied too and he knew exactly what was going on, he came out in the open and revealed what was going on, he went back to ganzi he didn’t want to lose control of the empire he knew he could trust him,II. Delhi Sultanate (1206-1525)- 1206 Mohammed Ghori was assassinated- the assassin said he was going to continue ruling on and Q said absolutely not he said he would not rule under the man who murdered his master- Q establishes himself as sultan this begins the delhi sultanate- there are 5 that make up the delhi- capital is delhi, this is going to


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