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HIS3464 Final Exam Study Guide• “The Chemist’s War” o Phrase used to describe World War I; majority of effort placed in creating explosives and poison gas• Second Battle of Ypres (April, 1915)o First effective use of poison gas (Chlorine gas)o Germans launch 150 tons of chlorine gas over 5 miles of battlefieldo Combines with moisture in eyes/throat to form HCl; death caused by asphyxiation• Mustard Gaso Affects respiratory system/any exposed areas of the human bodyo Causes blindness, bloody nose, nausea, abdominal pain, etco Gaseous particles lingered for days• Aerial Warfareo Powered aircrafts invented in 1903 (Wright brothers)o Unarmed planes used at beginning of WWI for reconnaissanceo Planes eventually armed with firearms• Anthony Fokkero Dutch piloto Introduced gear to fire machine guns to avoid damaging propeller• Manfred von Richthofeno The “Red Barron”o Over 80 confirmed aerial killso Began flying in 1915, met his demise in 1918• “The Physicist’s War”o Phrase used to described World War II; the atomic age• Fissiono Discovered in 1939o The process of converting matter into energy by neutron bombardment of the nucleus• Leo Szilardo Czech, Jewisho First person to conceptualize the creation of an atomic bombo Immigrated to the United States, worked at Columbia Universityo Contacts Albert Einstein about his theory• Manhattan Projecto Top-secret nuclear research project directed by General Leslie Groves• Enrico Fermio Applied the concept of nuclear fissiono University of Chicago – builds small nuclear reactor under football stadiumo December 1942 – successfully creates a self-sustaining fission chain reactiono Controlled chain reaction via fission• J. Robert Oppenheimero Head physicist of the Manhattan Projecto Based in Los Alamos, New Mexicoo Implosion creates uncontrolled chain reaction• Enola Gayo August 6th, 1945 – Atomic bomb “Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima, Japano Explosion equivalent to 15,000 tons of TNT• Hydrogen Bombo Invented in 1952o Hydrogen bomb through fusion detonated and destroyed an entire island (10 megatons)• Tsar Bombo Invented in 1961 by the Soviet Uniono Largest nuclear bomb at the time, designed to be 100 megatons (half of that at detonation)o Over 200,000 foot mushroom cloud after detonation• Nations with the Nuclear Bombo United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, Russian, Pakistan, India, China, North Korea? Iran?• Wernher von Brauno Developed the V2 Rocket during WWIIo Invited after WWII to build rockets for the United States• Yuri Gagarino First human in space on April 12th, 1961o Citizen of the Soviet Uniono Completed one orbit in approximately two hours• Alan Shepardo May 5, 1961, First United States citizen in space (did not complete orbit)o “Dear Lord, please don’t let me fuck this up”o Mercury 7 (1959 – 1963) – First core of American Astronauts• Gemini (1965 – 1966)o Gemini space program’s purpose was to figure out the physics of spaceo Sent two astronauts at a time• Valentina Tereshkovao 1963, first woman in spaceo Married fellow cosmonaut• Sally Rideo June 18th, 1983, first American woman to enter into low Earth orbit• Apollo-Soyuz Missiono 1975 – End of space race, linkage of astronauts and cosmonauts• Pioneer Missionso Unmanned space craft sent out to explore spaceo 1972 – Launch of Pioneer Craft 10/11 Provided first image of Jupiter• Voyager Missionso Launched in 1977 (Voyager 1/2)o Visited Jupiter and other gas giants Provided higher quality photo of Jupiter and its moons (Io and Europa) First look at Saturn and its rings, and its moon Titan Images of Uranus, Neptuneo “Pale Blue Dot”• International Space Stationo Launched in 1998• Bush Space Policyo 2006 U.S. National Space Policy “…Rejects arm control agreements that might limit U.S. flexibility in space and asserts a right to deny access to space to anyone “hostile to U.S. interest””• Obama Space Policyo Committed to increase NASA funding by approximately six billion over five years• SpaceX (Elon Musk)o Space transport company founded in 2002o Elon Musk – CEO, co-founder of Paypal• Virgin Galactic (Richard Branson)o Commercial space flight company• Twilight Zone (1959 – 1964)o Hosted by Rod Serlingo Episode – “The Shelter” (1961) Aired one year before the Cuban Missile Crisis• “Earthrise”o Earth in cosmic context depicted in a famous image (Apollo 8, 1968)• “Blue Marble”o Most reproduced image of Earth (Apollo 17, 1972)• Edgar Mitchello Lunar module pilot of Apollo 14o Sixth person to walk on the Moon• Apollo 11 (1969)o First mission to land on Moono Sea of Tranquility Landing site of Apollo 11o Neil Armstrong – First man on the Moono Buzz Aldrin – Second man on the moono Michael Collins – Remained in orbit• Thomas Hunt Morgano Biologist at Columbia Universityo 1908 – Experimentation with Drosophila (fruit fly) Drosophila have a short generation time; large chromosomeso A gene could be best described as part of a chromosomeo Provided a better understand of mutations and a greater acceptance of Darwinian evolution• Erwin Chargaffo Austrian Biochemist, Columbia Universityo Chargaff’s rule Nucleotide bases – Adenine pairs with thymine, cytosine pairs with guanine “Linked together in a chain”• Linus Paulingo California Institute of Technologyo 1952 – Works out a model of DNA as “triple helix” This model does not account for replication (major flaw)• Maurice Wilkinso Cambridge, researchero X-ray crystallography – X-rays used to analyze matter• Rosalind Franklino Expert in X-ray crystallographyo May, 1952 - Diffracted images to determine structure of DNAo Worked with Maurice Wilkinso 1958 – Dies due to cancer caused by radiation poisoning• James Watson and Francis Cricko Cambridge Universityo 1953 - Credited for discovery of DNA double helixo Accounts for DNA model: Replication Chargaff’s rule Helical structure• “…warm little pond”o Charles Darwin’s proposal of the origin of life in a letter to Joseph D. Hooker• Alexander Oparino Soviet Biochemisto Proposed hypothesis of how life came about “There is no fundamental difference between living matter and nonliving matter”• Urey-Miller Experimento University of Chicago, 1952 – Stanley Miller/Harold Ureyo Amino acids and other organic compounds formed by “lightning” source (electrical

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FSU HIS 3464 - Study Guide

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