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HIS3464 Final Exam Study Guide o Phrase used to describe World War I majority of effort placed in creating The Chemist s War explosives and poison gas Second Battle of Ypres April 1915 o First effective use of poison gas Chlorine gas o Germans launch 150 tons of chlorine gas over 5 miles of battlefield o Combines with moisture in eyes throat to form HCl death caused by asphyxiation Mustard Gas o Affects respiratory system any exposed areas of the human body o Causes blindness bloody nose nausea abdominal pain etc o Gaseous particles lingered for days Aerial Warfare o Powered aircrafts invented in 1903 Wright brothers o Unarmed planes used at beginning of WWI for reconnaissance o Planes eventually armed with firearms Anthony Fokker o Dutch pilot Manfred von Richthofen o The Red Barron o Introduced gear to fire machine guns to avoid damaging propeller o Over 80 confirmed aerial kills o Began flying in 1915 met his demise in 1918 The Physicist s War o Phrase used to described World War II the atomic age o The process of converting matter into energy by neutron bombardment of the Fission o Discovered in 1939 nucleus Leo Szilard o Czech Jewish o First person to conceptualize the creation of an atomic bomb o Immigrated to the United States worked at Columbia University o Contacts Albert Einstein about his theory Manhattan Project Enrico Fermi o Top secret nuclear research project directed by General Leslie Groves o Applied the concept of nuclear fission o University of Chicago builds small nuclear reactor under football stadium o December 1942 successfully creates a self sustaining fission chain reaction o Controlled chain reaction via fission J Robert Oppenheimer o Head physicist of the Manhattan Project o Based in Los Alamos New Mexico o Implosion creates uncontrolled chain reaction Enola Gay o August 6th 1945 Atomic bomb Little Boy dropped on Hiroshima Japan o Explosion equivalent to 15 000 tons of TNT Hydrogen Bomb o Invented in 1952 o Hydrogen bomb through fusion detonated and destroyed an entire island 10 megatons Tsar Bomb o Invented in 1961 by the Soviet Union o Largest nuclear bomb at the time designed to be 100 megatons half of that at detonation o United States United Kingdom France Israel Russian Pakistan India China o Over 200 000 foot mushroom cloud after detonation Nations with the Nuclear Bomb North Korea Iran Wernher von Braun o Developed the V2 Rocket during WWII o Invited after WWII to build rockets for the United States Yuri Gagarin Alan Shepard o First human in space on April 12th 1961 o Citizen of the Soviet Union o Completed one orbit in approximately two hours o May 5 1961 First United States citizen in space did not complete orbit o Dear Lord please don t let me fuck this up o Mercury 7 1959 1963 First core of American Astronauts o Gemini space program s purpose was to figure out the physics of space Gemini 1965 1966 o Sent two astronauts at a time Valentina Tereshkova o 1963 first woman in space o Married fellow cosmonaut Sally Ride Apollo Soyuz Mission Pioneer Missions o June 18th 1983 first American woman to enter into low Earth orbit o 1975 End of space race linkage of astronauts and cosmonauts o Unmanned space craft sent out to explore space o 1972 Launch of Pioneer Craft 10 11 Provided first image of Jupiter Voyager Missions o Launched in 1977 Voyager 1 2 o Visited Jupiter and other gas giants Provided higher quality photo of Jupiter and its moons Io and Europa First look at Saturn and its rings and its moon Titan Images of Uranus Neptune o Pale Blue Dot International Space Station o Launched in 1998 Bush Space Policy o 2006 U S National Space Policy Rejects arm control agreements that might limit U S flexibility in space and asserts a right to deny access to space to anyone hostile to U S interest Obama Space Policy years o Committed to increase NASA funding by approximately six billion over five SpaceX Elon Musk o Space transport company founded in 2002 o Elon Musk CEO co founder of Paypal Virgin Galactic Richard Branson o Commercial space flight company Twilight Zone 1959 1964 o Hosted by Rod Serling o Episode The Shelter 1961 Aired one year before the Cuban Missile Crisis Earthrise Blue Marble Edgar Mitchell o Earth in cosmic context depicted in a famous image Apollo 8 1968 o Most reproduced image of Earth Apollo 17 1972 o Lunar module pilot of Apollo 14 o Sixth person to walk on the Moon Apollo 11 1969 o First mission to land on Moon o Sea of Tranquility Landing site of Apollo 11 o Neil Armstrong First man on the Moon o Buzz Aldrin Second man on the moon o Michael Collins Remained in orbit Thomas Hunt Morgan o Biologist at Columbia University o 1908 Experimentation with Drosophila fruit fly Drosophila have a short generation time large chromosomes o A gene could be best described as part of a chromosome o Provided a better understand of mutations and a greater acceptance of Darwinian o Austrian Biochemist Columbia University evolution Erwin Chargaff o Chargaff s rule guanine Nucleotide bases Adenine pairs with thymine cytosine pairs with Linked together in a chain Linus Pauling o California Institute of Technology o 1952 Works out a model of DNA as triple helix This model does not account for replication major flaw Maurice Wilkins o Cambridge researcher o X ray crystallography X rays used to analyze matter Rosalind Franklin o Expert in X ray crystallography o May 1952 Diffracted images to determine structure of DNA o Worked with Maurice Wilkins o 1958 Dies due to cancer caused by radiation poisoning James Watson and Francis Crick o Cambridge University o 1953 Credited for discovery of DNA double helix o Accounts for DNA model Replication Chargaff s rule Helical structure warm little pond Alexander Oparin o Soviet Biochemist o Charles Darwin s proposal of the origin of life in a letter to Joseph D Hooker o Proposed hypothesis of how life came about There is no fundamental difference between living matter and nonliving matter o University of Chicago 1952 Stanley Miller Harold Urey o Amino acids and other organic compounds formed by lightning source Urey Miller Experiment electrical spark Viking Missions o Space craft s sent to Mars during the 1970 s o Contained probes to test for organic compounds on Mars o Moon of Jupiter o Entire surface is ice water Europa Titan Thought to have an entire ocean under this surface o Moon of Saturn o Has an atmosphere Hydrothermal vents o Discovered in the 1970 s Cassini Huygens spacecraft o Satellite that orbits

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FSU HIS 3464 - Study Guide

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