FSU HIS 3464 - HOTS Final Exam Study Guide

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1 HOTS Final Exam Study Guide 1) Enlightenment- cultural movement of intellectuals in the 17th and 18th centuries, first in Europe. Reformed using reason based in the scientific method, not faith. 2) Rene Descartes- “Cartesian”. Believed science and math could explain nature and described the universe in terms of matter and motion. Believed in God and doubted his own existence. 3) Mechanical Philosophy- belief that living things are like machines. Opposed Aristotle. 4) Comte de Buffon- a French naturalist that later influenced Lamarck and Cuvier. Held position of intendant at the Jardin du Roi. 5) Isaac Newton- Englishman who proved the three laws of motion. This theory combined with Kepler’s laws, removed any doubts about heliocentrism and advanced the scientific revolution. 6) Laws of Motion- ~First: If an object experiences no net force, then its velocity is constant. ~Second: Acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. ~Third: When a first body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force on the first body. 7) Theory of Color and Light- Newton discovered the color spectrum through prisms and rainbows from refraction and thus disproved Hooke’s theory. 8) Aristotle- ancient Greek philosopher and student of Plato. He also believed in four elements of the cosmos: earth, water, fire and air. Bodies moved by their own nature and the Universe is imperfect and finite.2 9) Love Canal- bio hazardous waste is dumped into the Love Canal and causes ethical environmental and health problems for local residents and wildlife. 10) Plato- ancient Greek philosopher constantly changing world with imitations all trying to achieve the real perfect form. 11) Hippocrates/Hippocratics- ancient Greek physician known as the father of western medicine. He was a large figure in the world of clinical medicine. 12) Carl Linnaeus- Swedish man who came up with binomial nomenclature. 13) Charles Darwin- English naturalist that came up with the theory of natural selection through evolution. Wrote Origin of Species. 14) Natural Selection- Darwin’s theory of why a population “changes” according to it’s habitat, survival of the fittest. Best seen on Galapagos Islands. 15) Thomas Malthus- British scholar who is widely known for his theories about population increases and decreases. He observed that eventually famine and disease would check populations. 16) Eugenics- biosocial movement that advocates improving the genetic composition of a population by higher production of more desirable people and traits. 17) Military Industrial Complex- refers to the relationships between legislatures, the national armed forces and the defense industrial base that supports them. Originally proposed by Guerin. 18) Johannes Kepler- German man best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion. Believed in “celestial physics”. Planetary motion: ~First: the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci. ~Second: A3 line joining a planet and sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. ~Third: the square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of the orbit. 19) Social Darwinism- applies biological concepts of Darwinism and evolution to social life and politics, saying that conflict between groups in society leads to social progression as superior groups out compete inferior ones. This idea emerged in England in the 1870’s. 20) Preformation (genetics)- idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves. Every person to be born in the lineage of a family already exists inside the egg in the uterus of their mother. 21) Mechanical Philosophy- see number 3 above. 22) Catastrophism- theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. Proposed by Cuvier. 23) Copernican’ Cosmology- idea that the Earth was in fact not at the center of our universe. 24) Skepticism- generally questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts or opinions. 25) Silent Spring- book written by Rachel Carson that launched the American environmental movement. The book documented the negative effects of pesticides on the environment, particularly birds. 26) “I think, therefore I am”- idea proposed by Rene Descartes that says that someone wondering whether or not they exist is, in itself, proof that something exists to do the thinking.4 27) Vortex- theory proposed by Rene Descartes that stated that space was entirely filled with matter in various states, whirling around the sun. 28) Society of Jesus- a Christian male group under the Roman Catholic Church. They are willing to go anywhere under harsh conditions to teach the word of God. 29) Universal Gravitation- proposed by Newton and states that every point mass in the universe attracts another point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses. 30) Binomial Nomenclature- naming system proposed by Carl Linnaeus that names every species scientifically by its genus, then species within that genus. 31) Jardin du roi (King’s Garden)/ Jardin des plantes (Botanical Garden)- main botanical garden in France. Comte de Buffon was the garden’s intendant. 32) Energy- ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. 33) Industrial Revolution- period from 1750-1850 where changes in agriculture, mining and transportation had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the time. It began in Great Britain and eventually spread to the rest of the world. Income and population sustained noticeable growth. 34) Principles of Geology- book written by Charles Lyell. Lyell’s interpretation of geologic change was that Earth formed through a steady accumulation of minute changes over enormously long spans of time and the present is the key to the future.5 35) Neptunism- discredited theory proposed by Abraham Werner that said that rocks formed from the crystallization of minerals in the early Earth’s oceans. 36) Uniformitarianism- the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe and apply everywhere in the universe. Proposed by James Hutton in contrast to catastrophism. 37) Imperialist Tradition (Bacon)- the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and

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FSU HIS 3464 - HOTS Final Exam Study Guide

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