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HOTS Final Exam Study Guide 1 Enlightenment cultural movement of intellectuals in the 17th and 18th centuries first in Europe Reformed using reason based in the scientific method not faith 2 Rene Descartes Cartesian Believed science and math could explain nature and described the universe in terms of matter and motion Believed in God and doubted his own existence 3 Mechanical Philosophy belief that living things are like machines Opposed Aristotle 4 Comte de Buffon a French naturalist that later influenced Lamarck and Cuvier Held position of intendant at the Jardin du Roi 5 Isaac Newton Englishman who proved the three laws of motion This theory combined with Kepler s laws removed any doubts about heliocentrism and advanced the scientific revolution 6 Laws of Motion First If an object experiences no net force then its velocity is constant Second Acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body Third When a first body exerts a force on a second body the second body simultaneously exerts a force on the first body 7 Theory of Color and Light Newton discovered the color spectrum through prisms and rainbows from refraction and thus disproved Hooke s theory 8 Aristotle ancient Greek philosopher and student of Plato He also believed in four elements of the cosmos earth water fire and air Bodies moved by their own nature and the Universe is imperfect and finite 1 9 Love Canal bio hazardous waste is dumped into the Love Canal and causes ethical environmental and health problems for local residents and wildlife 10 Plato ancient Greek philosopher constantly changing world with imitations all trying to achieve the real perfect form 11 Hippocrates Hippocratics ancient Greek physician known as the father of western medicine He was a large figure in the world of clinical medicine 12 Carl Linnaeus Swedish man who came up with binomial nomenclature 13 Charles Darwin English naturalist that came up with the theory of natural selection through evolution Wrote Origin of Species 14 Natural Selection Darwin s theory of why a population changes according to it s habitat survival of the fittest Best seen on Galapagos 15 Thomas Malthus British scholar who is widely known for his theories about population increases and decreases He observed that eventually famine and disease would check populations 16 Eugenics biosocial movement that advocates improving the genetic composition of a population by higher production of more desirable people Islands and traits 17 Military Industrial Complex refers to the relationships between legislatures the national armed forces and the defense industrial base that supports them Originally proposed by Guerin 18 Johannes Kepler German man best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion Believed in celestial physics Planetary motion First the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci Second A 2 line joining a planet and sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time Third the square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of the orbit 19 Social Darwinism applies biological concepts of Darwinism and evolution to social life and politics saying that conflict between groups in society leads to social progression as superior groups out compete inferior ones This idea emerged in England in the 1870 s 20 Preformation genetics idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves Every person to be born in the lineage of a family already exists inside the egg in the uterus of their mother 21 Mechanical Philosophy see number 3 above 22 Catastrophism theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden short lived violent events possibly worldwide in scope Proposed 23 Copernican Cosmology idea that the Earth was in fact not at the by Cuvier opinions center of our universe 24 Skepticism generally questioning attitude towards knowledge facts or 25 Silent Spring book written by Rachel Carson that launched the American environmental movement The book documented the negative effects of pesticides on the environment particularly birds 26 I think therefore I am idea proposed by Rene Descartes that says that someone wondering whether or not they exist is in itself proof that something exists to do the thinking 3 27 Vortex theory proposed by Rene Descartes that stated that space was entirely filled with matter in various states whirling around the sun 28 Society of Jesus a Christian male group under the Roman Catholic Church They are willing to go anywhere under harsh conditions to teach the word of God 29 Universal Gravitation proposed by Newton and states that every point mass in the universe attracts another point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses 30 Binomial Nomenclature naming system proposed by Carl Linnaeus that names every species scientifically by its genus then species within that 31 Jardin du roi King s Garden Jardin des plantes Botanical Garden main botanical garden in France Comte de Buffon was the garden s 32 Energy ability of a physical system to do work on other physical genus intendant systems 33 Industrial Revolution period from 1750 1850 where changes in agriculture mining and transportation had a profound effect on the social economic and cultural conditions of the time It began in Great Britain and eventually spread to the rest of the world Income and population sustained noticeable growth 34 Principles of Geology book written by Charles Lyell Lyell s interpretation of geologic change was that Earth formed through a steady accumulation of minute changes over enormously long spans of time and the present is the key to the future 4 35 Neptunism discredited theory proposed by Abraham Werner that said that rocks formed from the crystallization of minerals in the early Earth s oceans 36 Uniformitarianism the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe and apply everywhere in the universe Proposed by James Hutton in contrast to catastrophism 37 Imperialist Tradition Bacon the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic cultural and territorial relationship between the states and often in the form of an empire It s the exploitation of native people in order to enrich a small handful with nature 38 Arcadian Tradition the ideal of a simple rural life in close harmony 39

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FSU HIS 3464 - HOTS Final Exam Study Guide

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