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History 3464 EXAM TWO MATERIAL Day One of Notes: Tuesday 2/12/13 • Microscopes o Early 1600s o “Dutch eye piece” Over the years magnificent and staining techniques have gotten better. Around the same time as the telescope (used same tools practically) • Robert Hooke o 1635-1703o British o Micrographia  Oxford, we don’t know what he looks like, Galileo was the first to get on the telescope figures the importance, while Hooke got his hands on the microscopes and publishes a book “Micrographia” same thing as Gailieo in opposite direction • Micrographiao Feature good drawling, not the first time we seen art and science come together. He observed insects which even though they have been around forever now they get to see a Flea, Tick, Nat , Fly eye (Things human eyes cannot see) This was very big. Biggest and Most important = thin slice of cork and saw the cells. First to observe cells, and coined the term cells. First indication that living things are made out of cell• Antoine van Leeuwenhoek o 1632-1724 o Dutch o Animalcules  Created more than 500 lenses in his time, master craftsmen. Made 25 functioning Microscope. Clean drop of water under microscope and observed million of tiny things called…Animalcules• “animalcules” o What we call microorganisms o Could see they were alive, this was huge. Nothing alive smaller than an ant or a flea but NOW it expands our understanding our place in the universe. Opens up an entire new world. Microorganisms are every, still mind blowing. Lack of staining techniques that kept scientist from future discovery. • Edward Jenner o 1749-1823o British o Vaccination  Bill Nile Video! The boy was injected with puss from something (the vaccine) later the boy was injected with small pox and obviously didn’t get it which showed success. Realized (Jenner) Milk maids would get diseases called cow pox but he heard that these milk maids were all resistance to small pox. He figured a less intense strain allowed the body to build resistance for the stronger strain. • Matthais Jacob Schleiden o 1804-1881 o German Botanist o Contribution to Phytogenesis (1833) – everything about the plant is made out of cell. Did not discover the nucleus of the cell, he recognizes: 1. All plants are made of cells 2. The nucleus plays important roles in the development of cells. • Theodor Schwann o 1810-1882o German Zoologist o Accordance in the structure and growth of plants and animals (1847) What schleden did for plants, Schwann did it for animals. Both men were discovering cells by using the most up to date microscopes and staining > both realized that Animals and plants are made up of the same exact sort of blueprint. They did speak/recognized this together. Not everything is right. Didn’t know where they came from or where they were from. • Rudolf Virchow o 1821-1902 o German Pathologist o Disease is localized  Research is focused on Diseases. A person’s body is composed of four humors and is in homeostasis and the sickness is determined from which four humors is out of wacky. This dominated Disease for every. But he said that disease is localized, and said no to the four humors. He explained cell division, any looked at healthy and diseased cells. He determined that cells can only originate from pre-existing cells.• Principles of Cell Theory o All life is made of cellso All cells come from preexisting cellso Cells are the basic unit of life  Redefined and better understood now but the three guys (Schwann, Schleden, and Virchow) came up with this• Rise of laboratories (Late 19th century) o Natural can only be understood by laboratories. Science wasn’t always done this way until now. Leads to the growth of university and graduate work. Work place where specimens can be dissected. • Louis Pasteur o 1822-1895 o French o Pasteurization Biology, chemistry, physics jack of all trades kind of an individual. 1850-1860s is when he work was done. Wine is a huge thing in France, and the wine producers ask Pasteur to research this problem and asked him why some batches goes bad. They hired him. It is not due to chemical reaction, but through organisms were anaerobic (lives without oxygen) and they can get killed by heat. Boasted the industry and eventually used for milk, and now beer. French wine benefited first than British beer  Disproved officially spontaneous generation • Germ Theory of Diseaseo The theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganismo Why is there microbial growth on the bottom not top? The microorganisms from the air, or environment can fall into the broth. Re-creating generation. The long tubing thingy, the microorganisms would get stuck somewhere in the tube so no growth would happen in the broth. • Robert Koch o 1843-1910o German o “Koch’s postulates” Came up with several guidelines in the 1870-1880s 1. Specific microorganism is always specific to a disease 2. If isolate it than it can be grown in a cultural if you transplanted it than the new organism will get the disease. The microbe carriers the disease. Most Agar (mix of sugar and algae) • Gray’s Anatomy o Henry Gray o 1827-1861 o British Surgeon  Professor, write a book that was a useful guide to students. 1858 First book now known as Gray’s Anatomy. First addition has 1500 hundreds pages and have been used by medical students every since 40th edition now • Florence Nightengale • Alexander FlemingThursday 2/14/2013 • Genetics o Study of how characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another. Coin 1905 by Bateson. • Pangenesis o Darwin had to explain how heritability works in his argument. o Darwin’s hypothetical mechanism for heredity. Hypothesis that all the cells produce tiny particle gemmules (no one has ever seen but assume exist) butcontain all the heredity information in the human body. They migrate for the body and in the reproductive organs and that is his explanation. Not Accepted wasn’t and still isn’t. • Gregor Mendel o 1822-1884 o Austrian Monk o Father of genetics o Mendel son of Austrian peasants. Became a priest and continued his education, begins work in 1856 studying Pea Plants. How physically characteristics are passed down from one generation to the next. Not a random choose, pea plant, saw it had a lot of physical characteristics like shape (spherical or dented) , color (yellow or green), flower. o Color as an example, green plant with the other

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FSU HIS 3464 - Exam 2

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