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Final Study Guide-This is just an overview of each phylum, along with looking over the final study guide review your drawings and personal notes! Good Luck Studying!! Kingdom Protista1. Classification- Phylum: Ciliophora/ Ciliata- Phylum: Sporozoa/ Apicomplexa including parasites, Ex: Plasmodium vivax.- Phylum: Euglenozoa (move via flagella) - Phylum: Sarcodina: Ameboa, Psuedopodes, “fake” foot. Ex: Difflugia, Forminifera, Arcella. 2. Organization- Unicellular- Sometimes they form colonies3. Embryonic Development- N/A4. Symmetry- No symmetry5. Skeleton/Support- Have tests made of silicate and calcium- Radiolarian have silicate test- Foraminiferan have calcium tests6. Movement/Locomotion- Ciliophora: cilia- Sporozoa: no locomotion- Euglenozoa: flagella- Sarcodina: pseudopods7. Sensory/Nervous- Phototaxis: “eye spots” have nerve bundles that will detect pH change and light- Chemotaxis8. Digestion/Feeding- Autotrophic - Heterotrophic (eating other things) - Filter Feeders - Intracellular Digestion (food vacuoles and lysosomes)- Trichocysts: Paramecium use this structure to capture prey - Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis: Amoeba’s form of feeding. 9. Excretory/Osmoregulation- Diffusion - Contractile vacuoles 10. Circulation- Diffusion- Amoeba have cytoplasmic streaming11. Respiration - Diffusion12. Reproduction- Asexual: Binary Fission and Budding- Sexual: Conjugation and syngamy Phylum Features: Porifera 1. Classification: -Class Calcarea: Spicules are composed of calcium carbonate. All asconoid and syconoid belong to this group.-Class Hexactinellida: Spicules are composed of silica. Deep sea glass sponges. All members of this class are leuconoid. -Class Demospongiae: 80% of all sponges. All members are leuconoid in body plan. Occur in both marine and freshwater environments. 2. Organization: -Multicellular -Asymmetrical; sessile; filter feeders-No true tissues, and no embryonic germ tissues. - Cells specialize and can reorganize the sponge organism. 3. Embryonic Development-n/a4. Symmetry-Asymmetrical (no symmetry) 5. Skeleton/Support-spicules and spongin which prevents collapse of canals and chambers.-Structural protein: collagen=lies in the intercellular mesohyle6. Movement/Locomotion-Sessile -Movement as larvae-Cells move within sponge7. Sensory/Nervous-N/A8.Digestion/Feeding -Choanocytes (filter-feed): line the inner wall of the spongocoel and move water through the body cavity by the action of the flagella. They occur only in the radial canals. -Digestion is intracellular-some large sponges can filter up to 1500 liters per day.9. Excretory/Osmoregulation-filtered water leaves the sponge through the osculum 10. Circulation-N/A11. Respiration-N/A12. ReproductionSexual: Monecious/Dioecious1. When a stimulus is right, specialized flagellated choanocytes become sperm and release into the water. “Broadcast Spawning”2. The release sperm enters another sponge and gets phagocytized by choanocytes which lose their collar and flagella, become amoeboid and travel through the mesohyl to fertilize egg cells.3. Once fertilized they develop into PARENCHYMULA LARVAE, the larvae exits the parent sponge, swim for a few hours and settles and grows into a new sponge.Asexual: Gemmules, Fragmentation, Budding-excellent powers of regeneration after fragmentation due to the totipotency of cells and the simple cellular grade of organization.-Gemmule: a dense hardened ball of archaeocytes protected by collagen and spicules. They are an adaption to allow overwintering in harsh conditions and the formation of new sponges in the spring. Surface Area to Volume- Volume: r^2ph- Sides 2prh- As a sponge gets bigger then more volume per surface area, more force required and less opportunity for taking in materials.- Walls need to get bigger to prevent buckling Asconoid- Asconoid sponges have the simplest organization.- Water enters through microscopic dermal pores into a large cavity, spongocoel which is lined with choanocytes. Choanocyte flagella pull water though the pores and expel it through a single large osculum. Syconoid- increases surface area for filtering by folding the “asconoid” surface, now instead of a flagellated atrium (spongocoel) they have flagellated radial canals. Leuconoid- elaboration on the syconoid plan- further increases in surface area by subdividing flagellated canals into flagellated chambers. - More efficient water-pumping system. Pinacocytes:-outer sponge cells which help regulate the surface area of the sponge.Mesophyl:-Matrix beneath the pinacoderm which is the skeletal support of spicules and spongin. Porocytes:-surround cancel opening (pore) can contract to regulate water flow through the spongeArchaeocytes (amebocytes, amoebocytes):-totipotent cells, move through mesophyl. Ingest via phagocytosis, and digest food transferred from choanocytes and transport nutrients to other cells- In some sponges they develop into gametes. Ecological Roles of Porifera-structural elements- filtration-water chemistry-refugePhylum Features: Cnidaria and Ctenophora1. Classification:-Class Hydrozoa- Both polyp and medusa stages, mostly marine and some freshwater.- Siphonophores: the ultimate “superorganism” a colony of specialized cooperative, polymorphic polyps. - Hydrocorals: aka “fire coral” huge number of nematocytes which cause severe stinging pain, chills, and nausea. They secrete a calcareous skeleton resembling true corals-Class Scyphozoa - -jellyfish- -conspicuous medusa alternates with inconspicuous polyp form.- Dioecious- Gastrovascular Canal Systemo 4 gastric pouchso radial canalso ring canals- Surface: exumbrella- Ropalium: contains a statocysts for balance and sensing gravity and an ocellus for photoreception.- Gastrovascular Cavity- Gonad-Class Anthozoa- Sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals, and sea fans.- Sea Anemoneo GVC divided into chambers by septa.o Siphonoglyph: ciliated groove runs down sides of pharynx and maintains H2O current.o Acontia: threads with nematocyst and gland cells. o Life cycle: spawning (release) of gametes with external fertilization. Diploblastic gastrula with ciliated larvae. Two Smaller Classes (lecture): -Class Cubozoa- box jellyfish-medusa is prominent-tentacles at each “corner”-potentially lethal -Class Staurozoa-split off from class Scyphozoa-solitary polyp-top of polyp resembles a small medusa-octomerous (8 tentacles) 2. Organization-Tissue level3. Embryonic Development - Diploblastic : Epidermis/ Gastrodermic-

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FSU BSC 2011L - Final Study Guide

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