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Foundations of Emergency Management Exam 11. History of Emergency Management– 1803-1950– Congressional Act of 1803• Federal Resources to Portsmouth, N.H. fire– Council of National Defense - 1916• Protection of civilian population in wartime– Surveyed resources and mobilized 184,000 local organizations during WWI– Other ad hoc legislation providing federal resources for disaster recovery– 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, Tornadoes, Floods……. Office of Civil Defense (1941)– Created by Roosevelt to channel wartime activities of the civilian population• Protect the population from air attack• Recruit millions - air raid wardens, airplane spotters, and ambulance drivers• Terminated in 1945 by TrumanFederal Civil Defense Administration– Created by Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950• Charged with developing a system to protect life and property from attack-caused disaster– Primarily a state and local responsibility– Fed’s provide information, guidance, and assistance• Amended in 1958– Monies to state and locals for personnel and expenses on a 50% match basisDefense Civil Preparedness Agency (DPCA)• 1972 - OCD abolished and DPCA created• Beginning of the term “dual use” under DPCA– Dual Use - system that protects life and property of the U.S. citizen from attack and natural disasterAs long as it is consistent with, contributes to, and does not detract from attack preparedness1973 - Disaster Relief Responsibilities dividedFederal Disaster Assistance Administration, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, and Federal Preparedness Agency• Disaster Relief Act of 1974– Precedent-setting…• Instituted the Individual and Family Grant Program (75% for furniture, clothes, essentials)• Institutionalized efforts in mitigation• Mandated all levels of government to develop strategies aimed at preventing disasters• Stressed a multi-hazard approach– 1979 - Creation of FEMA - President CarterObjectives… (Reorganization Plan No. 3)• Establishment of a single entity (FEMA)– Directly responsible to the President and Congress– FEMA - Coordinating Agency• Improve emergency management and assistance• End duplication of costs• Consolidate federal functions and policy• FEMA’s on and off record…Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 amended second time in 1980– Mandated FEMA to work with state and local governments to assist them in setting up emergency management programs– Still dual use of funds– History, cont….Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act as amended– Original Act of May 22, 1974– Amended by Act of November 23, 1988– Amended by Act of December 3, 1993– Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000Still Principal Federal Authority for Disaster ReliefMajor Provisions of the Stafford Act– A refinement of the definition of “emergency”“…any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of catastrophe in any part of the United States.”• Political subjectivity for the PresidentStafford Act - an expansion of the Disaster Relief Act of 1950• President given complete authority to determine a major disaster• Governor of affected state must request Federal assistance• Federal assistance supplements, not supplants• President authorized to direct Federal assistance• Role of voluntary sector recognizedStafford Act Provisions, cont.– An expansion of the responsibilities and obligations of public institutions in emergencies– Further importance of mitigation and preparedness– Process on who does what when– The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA), commonly known as the 2000 Stafford Act amendments• Purposes:– Amend the Stafford Act– Establish a national program for pre-disaster mitigation– Streamline administration of disaster reliefWith growing emphasis on all hazards emergency management comes growing emphasis on…– Professionalism– Standardization• NFPA 1600– Establishes minimum criteria for disaster management and provides guidance to the private and public sectors in the development of a program for effective disaster preparedness response and recovery. • Certification – Certification of Emergency Managers through IAEM and state associations• Accreditation• Accreditation of Emergency Management Programs through independent Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP)Post Oklahoma City– Increasing emphasis on terrorism• Some turf battles over money/mission (DOJ, FEMA, PHS, DOD)• Crisis management vs. consequence managementPost September 11th…– Terrorism emphasis escalates– Increasing use of the term “homeland security”– Bush, Jr. merging into a single entity--the Department of Homeland Security– Primary mission - protect our homelandHomeland Security Act of November, 2002 Creates Department of Homeland SecurityBrings together 22 entities• Critical Mission Areas– Intelligence and Warning – Border and Transportation Security– Domestic Counterterrorism – Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets – Defending against Catastrophic Threats – Emergency Preparedness and Response •Homeland Security Presidential Directive #5 (HSPD-5) – February 28, 2003 (President Bush)– Objectives• For all levels of government to work efficiently and effectively together • Provide seamless integration of resources and capabilities • Provide a common lexicon and systems for horizontal and vertical integration • Establish networks and systems for effective communication • Full integration of crisis and consequence management• Mandates development of the NRP and the NIMS • Presidential Preparedness Directive 8• PPD 8, under President Obama, called for the development and maintenance of a (first ever) National Preparedness Goal– To define the core capabilities necessary to prepare for the specific types of incidents positing the greatest risk of security to the nation.• A secure and resilient Nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk. 2. Emergency Management….an organized analysis, planning, decision making, and assignment of available resources to

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FSU PAD 4391 - Foundations of Emergency Management

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