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Design Principles Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 principles guidelines rules for manipulating the elements used to create plan idea that functions 3 types linear directional leads eye around highlighting draws eye and focuses attention synthesizing leads eye around as it relates and integrates parts whole design opposite of chance involves a plan arrangement also a product result of design noun means of visual communication has endless possibilities and solutions no official rule set 2 types behavioral deals with ways of doing things actions sensory experienced through sight sound smell taste touch creative process involves seeking solutions to problems different steps can overlap be done in a different order content what is said form how it s said 1 thinking goal physical limitations time constraints consider audience customer form follows function fashion more about current trends style more personal individual a successful product has to be well designed in 1 function 2 structure 3 decoration 2 looking tures can be from lots of sources nature history artifacts other cul media materials according to Eva Hesse 2 points of view a materials are lifeless until given shape by creator b materials by their own potential created their end 3 doing 4 critique experimenting trial error and revisions pentimenti traces of the artist s revisions the artist repents can be with professor or class when a work is in progress or completed etc evaluate if the product meets the function Chapter 2 Harmony Unity harmony unity are synonymous unity a congruity or agreement exists among the elements in an image belong to gether directed by principles of design composition visual unity whole must predominate over the parts created by repetition of similar shapes lines patterns colors negative space sense of completed wholeness and coherance organization doesn t attract attention seen in architecture Gestalt Principles Unity theory of visual psychology perception law of simplicity organize elements into unified wholes similarity similar parts will be grouped together dissimilar separated proximity parts close together will be grouped closure perception of complete shaped from implied lines fill in the blanks continuation connect parts following in similar direction even if there s a break or interruption negative space shape created between 2 objects stimulus organization relationship between whole and parts in composition whole is different than the sum of its parts seeing units as a group harmony an agreement in feeling mood pleasing combination of differing things used in compatible ways pulls pieces together functional structural and decorative design levels must agree structural harmony emerges when parts agree with each other and whole functional intended purpose of object proper choices of styling etc decorative agrees with structure conveys pleasing consistent mood harmony synthesizes can create feelings applied design is design harmonious with its purpose unity vs harmony harmony relates but doesn t have to be complete unity completes harmony is possible without unity unity not possible without harmony Chapter 3 Emphasis Focal Point focal point emphasis in an image design can be more than one second one is called accent or counterpoint absence of focal point emphasizes whole over parts repetition more even emphasis interruption in fundamental pattern or movement of the viewers eye through the composition or a break in the rhythm ways to achieve it 1 contrast focuses attention where one element is different from prevailing design scheme some examples include light bold element in muted colors naturalistic element vs distorted color vs black and white 2 isolation element is set off by itself from the rest in some way focal point too close to edge will drag viewer s eye off the page 3 placement in the center creates emphasis draws eye Emphasis the Figure utility dress for concerns such as comfort and warmth hierarchical dress indicated position status seduction dress to attract others Chapter 4 Scale Proportion scale consistent relationship of sizes to each other and to the whole regardless of shape depends on the known size of another object a synthesizing principle psychologically larger scale shapes aggressive bold assertive while small scale is more delicate and dainty can be structurally or decoratively introduced overall size applies to all elements consistent use contributes to psychological satisfaction hieratic scale size of something indicates its importance contrast of scale can create drama interest the power of unusual scale huge scale things cannot be ignored proportion concerned with the relation of size of parts to the whole and to each other synthesizing principle applies to lines shapes forms early Egyptian and Greeks made formulas to define ideal proportions golden ratio 1 618 seen in human figure nature magic number phi golden mean ratio 3 5 8 golden rectangle is created by rotating the diagonal of the half square break points occur where silhouette lines change hip waist neck ankle knee head heights vertical body proportions number of times the height of head could fit into total height of body 1 8 scale vs proportion scale size proportion relative size in comparison to another object or standard Chapter 5 Balance balance the feeling of evenly distributed weight resulting in equilibrium steadiness and stability it is innate horizontal sides balance each other out vertical upper and lower half balance out radial center to outer edges balance physical balance comes from equal distribution of weight density tension imbalance can be used to create tension can be created through value and color texture and pattern symmetrical formal sides mirror one another nearly identical symmetry can unify create emphasis asymmetrical informal each side of the center is different more complex interaction of parts radial balance suggests control and stability in the center crystallographic balance allover pattern equal emphasis over the entire surface to achieve same visual weight or attraction GLOSSARY TERMS Ch 1 Aesthetics A branch of philosophy concerned with the beautiful in art and how the viewer experiences it Analysis A measure of the attributes and relationships of an artwork or design Classical Suggestive of Greek and Roman ideals of beauty and purity of form style or technique Content An idea conveyed through the artwork that implies the subject matter story or information the artist

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FSU CTE 3201 - Chapter 1

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